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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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For more than a decade, the PRO-ARMM kindergarten school has been molding and educating children towards a better future through a good educational foundation.
Class sizes are intentionally kept small in the Kindergarten and Junior Kindergarten programs to allow for customized learning and deeper exploration into student interests.
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Since the beginning of 2019, nine anarchic spaces (nurseries, kindergartens) have already been closed.
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After the issue came to the fore, the kindergarten apologized.
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We draw on our experiences in these various roles and use Sutton-Smith's (1997) influential construct or frame, rhetorics of play, to analyze references to play in current and historical curricula in an effort to trace changing assumptions about play and its role in kindergarten classrooms.
Head of the Little Bees Nurkhan Jumabayeva said that the kindergarten was created with the support of parents of children with diabetes and several donors.
Is Common Core too hard for kindergarten? Common Core Watch.
The Legislature voted in 1981 to require at least half a day of kindergarten, and gave school districts until 1989 to comply.
Speak often about kindergarten. Talking openly and excitedly about kindergarten is one way to spur a child's interest in school.

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