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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
[twitter-tweet]Yesterday Palestinian kindergarteners protested Israel's jailing of 350 Palestinian children in a march organized by Human Rights Defenders group and the Palestinian residents of Shuhada Street in ( #Hebron.
There is no way to cram when preparing for your kindergartener's first day of school.
I: Kindergarteners learn about Impressionism with Monet.
TOKYO - A bus believed to be carrying more than 10 kindergarteners smashed into a house in Tokyo's Ota Ward shortly after 1 p.m.
As for children in elementary school and kindergarteners, the obesity ratio rose as they grew up, with 11-year-olds leading the way at 10.5 percent, 6-year-olds at 4.6 percent and 5-year-olds at 2.8 percent, according to the survey.
This action research project invites kindergarteners to assess their own learning.
There are now several programs and tools geared toward attracting kindergarteners through 12th graders to engineering, and toward better educating and involving their parents.
The large pages and engaging layouts should stir happy responses and even encourage preschoolers and kindergarteners to personal action.
Early phonemic training benefits were examined in a study with 90 kindergarteners (Ball & Blachman, 1991).
Principal Maria Rodriguez, her staff, and students had truly been inspired by his message the year before and responded with creativity and energy: kindergarteners greeted Tim in song, the first-graders read him their tree book (which may soon be published commercially), older students recited a poem of commitment, and the running club--dedicated to personal health to complement environmental health--unveiled its new t-shirt and new name, the Tim Womick Running Club.
Most kindergarteners spend their days finger painting, swapping snacks and taking naps.
Some of the highlights are: (1) The percentage of Maryland kindergarteners fully ready to start school increased to 81% in 2010-2011, up 3 points from 2009-2010.