kindergarten

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kindergarten

[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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.

Bibliography

See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

kindergarten

a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
There was an increase in the statewide rate of kindergartners without up-to-date status on vaccinations from 7.8 percent during 2000 to 9.84 percent during 2013.
Thanks to improved immunization rates, the chances that not-fully-vaccinated kindergartners might bump into each other in school fell from 26% in 2014 to just 5% in 2017, researchers reported in the July 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The kindergartners were selected and packed at least nine food and drink items for each food bag, all of which were donated by Northwest Suburban Montessori School parents and families.
([section]) Coverage estimates are based on a sample of kindergartners, and exemption estimates are based on a census for Alaska, Kansas, and Wisconsin.
Writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association in September, researchers found that over the last two school years, the rate of permanent medical exemptions for kindergartners tripled.
In turn, when I asked the kindergartners what they were learning, their replies reflected two things: one, they were learning to follow rules; two, learning was for the sake of getting to the next grade and eventually to find a job.
According to the agency's assessment, completion rates for each immunization series also increased among kindergartners in the 2016-2017 school year, from an increase of 2 percentage points for the hepatitis B vaccine to 2.8 percentage points for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine.
Caption: DEDICATED SPACE--Mukilteo School District's new standalone Fairmount Kindergarten Center is designed to accommodate kindergartners. In addition to heated floors and technology-enabled classrooms, the building features wide-open multifunctional spaces as well as nooks and quiet spaces where students can get lost in a book's characters and storyline.
"It's unfathomable," S., who is the mother of a kindergartner, told Arutz Sheva.
Kindergartners will have a staggered start schedule, and will attend school only one of the first three days of Sept.
Kindergartners and first-graders who watched as little as one hour of television a day were more likely to be overweight or obese compared to children who watched TV for less than 60 minutes each day, according to a study to be presented Sunday, April 26 at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in San Diego.
Preschoolers & Kindergartners Moving & Learning is a pick for any physical education teacher at the preschool and kindergarten levels, and provides everything needed to integrate a physical education program into the curriculum.