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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

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a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The second installment of Sh300 million is now the subject of a vicious court battle between Philippas and Kindie who has filed documents revealing details of the subsidy programme that the government kept a closely guarded secret last year when the controversy blew up.
The court battle before Justice Joseph Onguto also raises questions about the legality of the partnership between Kindie and Philippas.
The three firms have obtained a court order barring Belayneh Kindie Import and Export from interfering with the final installment of Sh312 million that the government deposited in its Guarantee Trust Bank account - unless it surrenders its cut of Sh265 million.
Philippas claims that Kindie reneged on the agreement and cancelled transfer of funds due to his companies.But Kindie claims that he only had a contract with Huyton Inc, which breached some terms of the joint venture.
'I verily believe that there has been over-invoicing by Huyton by means of inflating the costs of freight, discharge costs, packing, surveyors' charges and other relevant costs for the delivery of maize to the government of Kenya contrary to the joint venture agreement,' Kindie says in his replying affidavit.
They may be revealed, however, in the suit involving Philippas' three firms and Kindie, depending on the course of the dispute.
The showdown between Kindie and Philippas has also revealed how fortune smiled on the Ethiopian businessman in May last year.
Kindie's claims of over-invoicing by Philippas' Huyton Inc, if proven to be true, could raise questions about how much taxpayers' may have paid in inflated debt to other suppliers that brought in grain during the shortage.