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(1) For Kindle Android tablets, see Kindle Fire.

(2) An e-book system from that includes a family of portable e-readers and a vast library of e-books. Introduced in 2007 with 88,000 titles and more than a hundred best sellers, the Kindle has defined the e-book industry. Kindle devices have become thinner, lighter and brighter, and the book selection continually increases (more than one million by 2015). Titles are searched and purchased on the Kindle and immediately downloaded via Amazon's WhisperNet via Wi-Fi or cellular, depending on model and geographic area. Newspapers and magazines are sent overnight for morning reading.

Featuring models with 6" and 10" screens, Web access and music playback on earlier models was later dropped (all of which are available on Kindle Fire tablets). The Kindle's monochrome E Ink display enables the battery to last up to a month. See Kindle Fire and E Ink.

Users are assigned a email address, which lets them email Amazon their own Word, PDF, text and image files as attachments for downloading to their Kindles. PRC and MOBI files can also be sent to the device (see Kindle e-book formats).

Whispersync for Other Devices
In 2009 and 2010, Amazon introduced Kindle apps for the PC, Mac, iOS and Android devices, and the Kindle Whispersync service synchronizes all of them. Pages are automatically bookmarked, and users pick up in one device where they last stopped in the other. See e-book and Mobipocket.

First Generation
Although nearly an inch thick, the first Kindle was an overnight success and out of stock for months. This shows The New York Times downloaded on the device. (Image courtesy of

Third Generation Kindle
In 2010, at less than nine ounces and a third of an inch thick, the smaller, lighter Kindle could hold 3,500 e-books.

The Kindle Paperwhite
In 2012, Amazon introduced the Paperwhite e-reader with a greatly enhanced display (left). See Kindle Paperwhite.

At the Beach
In bright sunlight, where LCD screens become almost invisible, the Kindle's E Ink display is easily read. See E Ink.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Along with the kindling acquisition, the difference between Kindle group and LFS-K and K-LFS groups increased (p > 0.05) (Figure 2).
All animals in the Kindle group achieved the generalized seizure stages (stages 4-5 of kindling) at most at the 5th day.
A Kruskal-Wallis followed by a Bonferroni's test showed that applying LFS either before or after kindling stimulations significantly increased the number of stimulations required to achieve localized (stage 3) and generalized (stages 4 and 5) seizure stages (for stage 2: H[2] = 6.725, p > 0.05, for stage 3: H[2] = 8.498, p < 0.05, and for stages 4-5: H[2] = 13.658, p < 0.05).
The results confirmed that applying LFS either before or after the kindling stimulation significantly inhibited the kindling acquisition procedure.
[44] reported that the frequency of LFS and the interval time between LFS and the kindling stimulation play an important role in the extent of effectiveness of LFS.
In the present study, application of LFS either before or after the kindling stimulation significantly decreased ADD, compared with the Kindle group; however, the difference between the K-LFS and LFS-K groups was not statistically significant.
All animals in the Kindle group experienced generalized seizure stages within 5 days, whereas only one animal in the LFS-K group and two animals in the K-LFS group achieved stages 4 and 5 of the kindling. Moreover, application of LFS in both LFS-K and K-LFS protocols significantly increased the number of stimulations required to achieve generalized seizure stages.
Construct the kindling frame out of 2 x 4 lumber and 3/4-inch plywood.