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Related to Kinesthesia: synesthesia
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also kinesthesis, proprioreception, muscle sense), the ability of man and animals to perceive and evaluate change in the relative positions and in the movements of the parts of the body.

N. M. Sechenov was the first to study the relationship between information about the position in space of various parts of the body and the degree of contraction of each muscle, on the one hand, and movement regulation and learning about the environment, on the other. He referred to kinesthesia as the “dark muscle sense.” During the contraction and stretching of muscles, nerve impulses arising in the kinesthetic receptors (muscle spindles, Golgi apparatus, and possibly the pacinian corpuscles) reach the central nervous system via sensory nerve fibers. The set of peripheral and central nervous formations participating in the analysis of this information was called the motor analyzer by I. P. Pavlov. The perfection and delicacy of coordination of motor reactions, such as locomotion in man and animals, are attributable to the steady accumulation throughout life of constantly regenerated connections between the neurons of the motor analyzer and those of the other analyzers (visual, acoustic, and so forth).

Kinesthesia plays an important role in the development of perceptions because it serves as the basis for control of all the other sense organs. Thus, visual appraisal of the distance of an object as it is approached is mediated by muscle sense.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mechanoreceptors relay information related to kinesthesia to the CNS; therefore, appropriate joint configurations should facilitate accurate haptic perception during motor tasks.
Horak, "Axial kinesthesia is impaired in Parkinson's disease: effects of levodopa," Experimental Neurology, vol.
Evaluation of position sense in the joint and kinesthesia alone do not provide adequate information on functioning of proprioceptive reflexes that seem to be responsible for the joint functional stability.
Kinesthesia is our true sixth sense, mental telepathy notwithstanding.
This sixth sense is actually several highly integrated sensory systems, but for the sake of simplicity we will refer to this sensory system as our sense of kinesthesia (Greek: kinema--movement; esthesia--perception/sensing).
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(2009) Side-to-side difference in joint position sense and kinesthesia in unilateral functional ankle instability.
(2000) Cervicocephalic kinesthesia sensibility and postural sway in a Formula 3000 racing car driver: preliminary report.
Closely related to proprioception is kinesthesia, which relates to our self-awareness of body movement.
One overall finding is that language structure has much overlap with structure in the cognitive systems of vision, kinesthesia, and reasoning, but little overlap with structure in the cognitive systems of affect and culture.