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(also kinesthesis, proprioreception, muscle sense), the ability of man and animals to perceive and evaluate change in the relative positions and in the movements of the parts of the body.

N. M. Sechenov was the first to study the relationship between information about the position in space of various parts of the body and the degree of contraction of each muscle, on the one hand, and movement regulation and learning about the environment, on the other. He referred to kinesthesia as the “dark muscle sense.” During the contraction and stretching of muscles, nerve impulses arising in the kinesthetic receptors (muscle spindles, Golgi apparatus, and possibly the pacinian corpuscles) reach the central nervous system via sensory nerve fibers. The set of peripheral and central nervous formations participating in the analysis of this information was called the motor analyzer by I. P. Pavlov. The perfection and delicacy of coordination of motor reactions, such as locomotion in man and animals, are attributable to the steady accumulation throughout life of constantly regenerated connections between the neurons of the motor analyzer and those of the other analyzers (visual, acoustic, and so forth).

Kinesthesia plays an important role in the development of perceptions because it serves as the basis for control of all the other sense organs. Thus, visual appraisal of the distance of an object as it is approached is mediated by muscle sense.


References in periodicals archive ?
Further analysis of students' perceptual preferences, as reported by their LSI printouts, revealed that 37 students scored 60 or higher--which indicates a preference for learning tactually and/or kinesthetically.
If one practices these devices, has reasonably good ears, or at least can kinesthetically sense vibration in the resonators, he/she will quickly learn to recognize optimal resonance, improve the tone of the voice and sing with greater consistency, ease and power.
part of persuading any singer to accept the timbral change that occurs at the top of the passaggio is to help him kinesthetically realize a new (replacement) resonance.
1) Although Gillis Gass and Russell define adventure therapy as "the prescriptive use of adventure experiences provided by mental health professionals, often conducted in natural settings that kinesthetically engage clients on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels" (1), some research still shows the difference between adventure therapy and wilderness therapy.
In a recent interview, he describes his rhythmic approach to writing as kinesthetically, rather than structurally, faithful.
Students, therefore, should not be evaluated by the teacher as "correct" until they explain their thinking through signaling kinesthetically, using manipulables, and making models (Rangan & Lee, 2010, p.
49) Advice echoed 19th-century themes and revolved around segmenting the music and memorizing in different ways, that is aurally, visually, kinesthetically and by analyzing the details of the music (see Bibliography).
You are learning so much and you are doing it completely kinesthetically," says Joyce.
in the mind's eye "see" movement) and kinesthetically (e.
1) has been used, wherein AT is defined as the "prescriptive use of adventure experiences provided by mental health professionals, often conducted in natural settings that kinesthetically engage clients on cognitive, affective and behavioral levels.
This particular type of knowledge and skills have been built up through conscious (purposeful) and non-conscious listening (for leisure) in and out of the classroom as well as learning keyboard in class, kinesthetically and aurally experimenting with melodic notes.