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knowledge

(artificial intelligence, information science)
The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection of knowledge, represented using some knowledge representation language is known as a knowledge base and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a knowledge-based system.

Knowledge differs from data or information in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical inference. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing.

A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a Prolog program, is a collection of facts and rules about some subject.

For example, a knowledge base about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson.

See also Knowledge Level.

Knowledge

 

the result of cognition of reality verified in practice; the true reflection of reality in the consciousness of man.

Knowledge is the opposite of ignorance, the absence of verified information about something. Elementary knowledge resulting from biological regularities is characteristic of animals as well, for whom it serves as a necessary condition for the vital activity of the organism and for the realization of its behavioral activity. Knowledge may be everyday, prescientific, artistic, or scientific; scientific knowledge is subdivided into empirical and theoretical. As a rule, everyday knowledge is limited to the statement and description of facts. Scientific knowledge ascends to the level of explanation of facts and their comprehension in a system of concepts of a given science; it is included within a theory. The essence of scientific knowledge consists in understanding reality in its past, present, and future; in reliably generalizing from facts; in dis-covering necessary and regular laws behind random occurrences and general patterns behind singular events; and on such a basis, in foreseeing phenomena. Human thought is constantly advancing from ignorance to knowledge, from superficial to increasingly more profound and comprehensive knowledge.

A. G. SPIRKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
In Jahangiri L et al15 study, 688 subjects were sent an electronic survey by e-mail "a link to a Survey Monkey instrument".16 Their results shows that 'Competence' consisted of 5 defined categories; knowledgeable, expertise, efficient, skillful, and effective.
The questions have been used in many similar surveys, and the researchers pointed out that "very few Americans can answer all of the first three questions correctly [...] and not many more know the correct answers to a majority of them." However, the respondents overall correctly answered more of the questions than would the general population--not surprising since these were financial services company employees who were "substantially more financially knowledgeable [...] than the general population." The results allowed the researchers to build a "Financial Knowledge Index" for the respondents measuring their knowledge.
While the researchers point out that "it would be premature to offer policy recommendations" and that further research into the topic is warranted, they conclude that "Nevertheless the significantly higher risk-adjusted annual expected returns of 130 basis points for the best versus the least knowledgeable confirm that financial literacy can contribute to better earnings in 401(k) retirement plans."
"They're able to distinguish someone who's truly knowledgeable from someone who's given them a right answer but doesn't necessarily deserve long-term trust," added Einav.
Allzone's mission is to only use the services of the most knowledgeable individuals in order to provide the highest level of services to all clients.
* When asked to quantify their understanding of various control systems and techniques on a five-point sliding scale (from not at all knowledgeable to very knowledgeable), the majority indicated they were only somewhat knowledgeable about most of the criteria listed, including commissioning, controls protocols, daylighting controls, wireless controls and occupancy sensors.
The NPD study reports that 67% of moms feel they are extremely or very knowledgeable about nutrition and eating, and 81% feel they are the primary source for nutritional education for their children.
The Knowledgeable sales team at ASHTON SEALS are able to guide you to the best sealing solutions for your company.
In fairness, some moved the muzzle to a safe direction and away, and some "new" folks with knowledgeable gun people with them had the muzzle directed in a safe manner by their more knowledgeable cohorts.
* CFCM--Certified Federal Contracts Manager shows that you are knowledgeable about the practice of contracts management in the federal environment.
If so, be confident about what you have learnt, and know that even if you are not academically knowledgeable you are knowledgeable about life.
The study also found that men claim to be more knowledgeable about online fraud, with about 47 percent calling themselves "knowledgeable" or "very knowledgeable," compared to around 36 percent of women.

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