Only when that refashioned version of the koine was found to be unworkable did the ROC language committees slowly come around to the idea of creating a standard based on a single living dialect, that of Beijing.
15) This five-tone variety was the tone system of the prestige form of Mandarin predominant in the Ming and Qing Guanhua koine language of the officials.
Del contacto intragrupal, surge la nivelacion de dialectos semejantes que convergen en la formacion de una koine
comun, como ocurre en las areas de contacto que se investigan en la actualidad.
In this latter case, to the extent that native immigrant varieties survive, original differences will be maintained, not filtered into a local koine based on the immigrant varieties themselves.
The spreading forms themselves are characteristic of the same large koine met above in Milton Keynes, with a focal point in the greater London area and the Southeast of England.
At the same time, the presence of "regional dialect levelling" (2) (in addition to new town koine
formation) could be assessed.
It has been suggested that it was: a) a composite system, never actually pronounced as such by anyone; b) a fully functional standard character reading system with minimal internal variation; c) a spoken koine pronunciation system with minimal internal variation; d) the sound system of the Luohyang dialect; or e) the sound system of the Charng'an dialect.
Karlgren, for example, considered the Chiehyunn jyyjaangtwu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to be an analysis of the language of Symaa Guang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1019-1086), while Pulleyblank sees the late twelfth-century Yunnjinq [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as representing the sound system of a considerably earlier Tarng-period koine (Karlgren 1954; Pulleyblank 1984).
Its first and oldest application was to the universal standard language or koine spoken by officials and educated people in traditional China during the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1912) dynasties.
Further references in texts of this period throw light on the regional affiliations of the Guanhua koine.
Lui descrive la lingua delle lettere di Stefana Quinzani e Laura Mignani di Brescia corne "una koine
piu o meno spiccatamente settentrionale".
8) "No obstante, como dialecto de superestrato en las zonas previamente quechuizadas, como segunda lengua en los territorios de habla diferente, o como idioma de relaciones en los confines del imperio, la variedad quechua koine
, por lo mismo llamada general, garantizaba plenamente la comunicacion dentro de los ambitos del vasto imperio" (Calvo 2001: 521).