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(kīfō`səs): see hunchbackhunchback,
abnormal outward curvature of the spine in the thoracic region. It is also known as kyphosis and humpback, and in its severe form a noticeable hump is evident on the back.
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curvature of the spine in man, with the convexity of the curve posterior.

The entire spine of the newborn is arced (total physiological kyphosis). As the infant develops, physiological kyphosis arises in the thoracic and sacral sections. Kyphosis in the thoracic spine may increase dramatically by old age because of developmental changes in the intervertebral disks and a weakening of muscle tone.

Pathological kyphosis, a result of congenital abnormalities in spine development (additional wedge-shaped vertebrae or the fusion of separate vertebrae), usually appears after the age of six months, once the infant has begun to stand and walk. Kyphosis can result from rickets, spinal tuberculosis, and certain familial conditions. It can also develop in persons who sit bent over for long periods of time because of occupation or myopia. Kyphosis is treated by special gymnastic exercises and by strengthening the back muscles by massage or physical therapy. Surgery may have to be performed if more conservative treatment proves unsuccessful.


Angular curvature of the spine, usually in the thoracic region. Also known as humpback; hunchback.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO), a V-shaped wedge resection of the vertebral body, is the most popular technique in the surgical treatment of kyphosis in AS patients.
As the kyphosis advanced and mobility of the lumbar spine was restricted, AS patients had more difficulty maintaining their balance while standing on foam.
Surgical treatment of dorsal hemivertebrae associated with kyphosis by spinal segmental stabilisation, with or without decompression.
Middle back pain associated with an excessively rounded back, or kyphosis of the thoracic spine, is known as Scheuermann's kyphosis.
Those who developed a significant increase in back extensor strength had a significant decrease in thoracic kyphosis (dowager's hump), while those who did not get stronger actually had a slight increase in kyphosis.
16] The majority of the participants presented with a forward head and rounded shoulder posture while nine also had slight thoracic spine kyphosis.
was diagnosed with kyphosis and the main objective was to improve muscle strength, mobility and stability of the trunk and lower limbs.
Later, kyphosis and lordosis angles were calculated and converted to Cobb's angle equivalents, using the following method:
Preoperative MRI and CT scans revealed a flattened cord at the apex of the kyphosis with a penetrating left 6th RH adjacent to the cord without compression (Figures 1(b)-1(d)).
Culham, Jimenez, and King explain how kyphosis affects breathing.
Fair result: Complete resolution of disease, but with a post treatment kyphosis deformity of 30 degrees or more at the affected level, with partial neurological recovery, or patients who are having moderate residual pain limiting their physical activity.