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(kīfō`səs): see hunchbackhunchback,
abnormal outward curvature of the spine in the thoracic region. It is also known as kyphosis and humpback, and in its severe form a noticeable hump is evident on the back.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



curvature of the spine in man, with the convexity of the curve posterior.

The entire spine of the newborn is arced (total physiological kyphosis). As the infant develops, physiological kyphosis arises in the thoracic and sacral sections. Kyphosis in the thoracic spine may increase dramatically by old age because of developmental changes in the intervertebral disks and a weakening of muscle tone.

Pathological kyphosis, a result of congenital abnormalities in spine development (additional wedge-shaped vertebrae or the fusion of separate vertebrae), usually appears after the age of six months, once the infant has begun to stand and walk. Kyphosis can result from rickets, spinal tuberculosis, and certain familial conditions. It can also develop in persons who sit bent over for long periods of time because of occupation or myopia. Kyphosis is treated by special gymnastic exercises and by strengthening the back muscles by massage or physical therapy. Surgery may have to be performed if more conservative treatment proves unsuccessful.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Angular curvature of the spine, usually in the thoracic region. Also known as humpback; hunchback.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The stress on the UIV and its adjacent vertebrae was higher from T10 to the upper thoracic segments than in the lumbar segments prior to the pedicle being fixed, which may be explained by the local anatomy; this is the transitional region between the lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis, where T11 and T12 (as floating ribs) have the greatest mobility.
One-stage posterior focus debridement, fusion and instrumentation in the surgical treatment of cervicothoracic spinal tuberculosis with kyphosis in children: a preliminary report.
Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis are the major components of the physiological curvatures of the spine in the sagittal plane.
In patients with degenerative disc disease and disc hernias, there is a more flat spine, characterized by decreased thoracic kyphosis and decreased LL.
--experimental group with reduction of thoracic kyphosis < 42[degrees] (as measured between the C7 and Th12 and the apex of kyphosis), with 55 girls and 69 boys;
Comorbid diseases observed in our patients with Friedrich ataxia Comorbid diseases n % Cardiac problems Minimal mitral regurgitation + tricuspid regurgitation 2 5.4 Minimal mitral regurgitation 1 2.7 Cardiomyopathy 3 8.1 Congestive cardiac failure 3 8.1 Visual problems Optic atrophy 5 13 Nystagmus 2 6 Auditory problems Hearing loss 4 11 Speech disorder Dysarthria 33 89 Aphasia 1 3 Swallowing disorder Dysphagia 2 5.4 Cognitive disorder Cognitive dysfunction 7 18.9 Deformities and fracture Pes cavus 15 40.5 Scoliosis 18 48.6 Kyphosis 16 43.2 Pes equinovarus 1 2.7 Genu recurvatum 13 35.1 Fracture 8 21.6 Mallet finger 4 10.8 Neurogenic bladder Hyperreflexic synergistic bladder 4 10.8 Hyperreflexic dyssynergistic bladder 1 2.7 Table 3.
When she was one year old, she had the skeletal manifestation, short trunk, and kyphosis and the other systems involvement appeared during follow-up.
Woods, M.D., from the University of California in San Diego, and colleagues examined the correlation between Cobb angle of kyphosis from lateral spine radiographs and pattern of self-reported HT use during the previous 15 years.
"Women who reported the early use of HT were less likely to develop age-related kyphosis, and the protective benefits continued even after stopping HT", said Dr.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory seronegative arthropathy that progressively affects the axial skeleton, leading to a characteristic spinal kyphotic deformity in its later stages.[1] Severe deformities cause muscle fatigue, an inability to look straight ahead, and functional disabilities.[2],[3],[4],[5] Surgical correction is necessary in many patients with AS kyphosis to restore sagittal balance and improve the quality of life.[6],[7],[8],[9]
The largest majority of challenges Langgle sees in his practice are structural issues with the neck, called Cervical Kyphosis. This can cause chronic headaches, that many times are not associated with posture issues by traditional medical doctors.
Consequences of these imbalances are forward head posture, thoracic kyphosis, pronated foot, excessive pelvic tilt, rounded shoulder, and so on.