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an ester or salt of lactic acid
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


A salt or ester of lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH). In lactates, the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical. Lactates are optically active, with a chiral center at carbon 2. Commercial fermentation produces either the dextrorotatory (R) or the levorotatory (S) form, depending on the organism involved. See Optical activity

The R form of lactate occurs in blood and muscle as a product of glycolysis. Lack of sufficient oxygen during strenuous exercise causes enzymatic (lactate dehydrogenase) reduction of pyruvic acid to lactate, which causes tiredness, sore muscles, and even muscle cramps. During renewed oxygen supply (rest) the lactate is reoxidized to pyruvic acid and the fragments enter the Krebs (citric acid) cycle. The plasma membranes of muscle and liver are permeable to pyruvates and lactates, permitting the blood to transport them to the liver (Cori cycle). Lactates also increase during fasting and in diabetics. See Biological oxidation, Carbohydrate metabolism, Citric acid cycle

Lactates are found in certain foods (sauerkraut), and may be used for flour conditioning and in food emulsification. Alkali-metal salts act as blood coagulants and are used in calcium therapy, while esters are used as plasticizers and as solvents for lacquers. See Ester, Salt (chemistry)

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(organic chemistry)
A salt or ester of lactic acid in which the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical.
To secrete milk.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study was designed to find out the diagnostic accuracy of plasma lactate in patients of asphyxia by taking pH as gold standard.
The aim of the present study was to describe the prognostic value of blood lactate and LC measured at the initiation of ECLS (H0) and at 3 (H3) and 6 h (H6) from the initiation of ECLS in patients with refractory CA treated by ECLS and admitted to the ICU.
Our main objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of active recovery, passive recovery and massage recovery methods in blood lactic acid recovery, which is highly important for the next exercise or match for football players, to compare this effectiveness according to the football player's position in the games, to determine whether the football player's position provides him an advantage in terms of lactate recovery, to identify which recovery method is more effective in which position, and to create recovery programs specific to the player's position according to obtained results and prepare him for the next effort in the best way possible.
In addition, some other studies have also used non-invasive methods in the contexts of aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance and lactate threshold estimation (Plato and collaborators, 2008).
The animals were then assigned to three experimental groups: sham-operated perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution (Sham), MI perfused with KH solution (MI), and MI perfused with KH solution plus sodium lactate (20 mM) (MI-lactate).
Lactate level indicates the presence of anaerobic metabolism.
The researchers found that lactates were measured within the mandated window 32 percent of the time on the ward (505 patients) compared with the intensive care unit (55 percent; 818 patients) and the emergency department (79 percent; 2,144 patients).
Among the 29 neoplastic lesions with necrotic components, 13 low-grade tumours all showed increased choline peak, decreased creatinine, NAA peak along with lactate peak.
To interrogate the relationship between serum lactate levels and mortality in patients with isolated CGSWs in order to improve prediction of mortality in these patients.
Anaerobic threshold (LTAN) or the exercise intensity above which blood lactate increases abruptly during graded effort has been extensively used in science, sport and clinical fields as an important index of aerobic fitness (McGehee et al., 2005; Simoes et al., 2009).