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an ester or salt of lactic acid


A salt or ester of lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH). In lactates, the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical. Lactates are optically active, with a chiral center at carbon 2. Commercial fermentation produces either the dextrorotatory (R) or the levorotatory (S) form, depending on the organism involved. See Optical activity

The R form of lactate occurs in blood and muscle as a product of glycolysis. Lack of sufficient oxygen during strenuous exercise causes enzymatic (lactate dehydrogenase) reduction of pyruvic acid to lactate, which causes tiredness, sore muscles, and even muscle cramps. During renewed oxygen supply (rest) the lactate is reoxidized to pyruvic acid and the fragments enter the Krebs (citric acid) cycle. The plasma membranes of muscle and liver are permeable to pyruvates and lactates, permitting the blood to transport them to the liver (Cori cycle). Lactates also increase during fasting and in diabetics. See Biological oxidation, Carbohydrate metabolism, Citric acid cycle

Lactates are found in certain foods (sauerkraut), and may be used for flour conditioning and in food emulsification. Alkali-metal salts act as blood coagulants and are used in calcium therapy, while esters are used as plasticizers and as solvents for lacquers. See Ester, Salt (chemistry)


(organic chemistry)
A salt or ester of lactic acid in which the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical.
To secrete milk.
References in periodicals archive ?
The highest fortnight value of calcium at second and third fortnight was 144 mg/L in summer and the lowest 72+-2.11 mg L-1 in the months of winter in lactating goats.
Calcium levels in male animals excreted through urine were higher in the months of winter (102+-4.56 mg L-1) as compared to summer season while lowest (38+-3.21 mg L-1) in winter season for lactating goats (Table I).
Table I.- Calcium concentrations (mean+-SE) in feces, urine, plasma and milk samples of lactating, non-lactating and male goats during summer and winter seasons.
Hertel et al however proposed that lactating adenomas arise in preexisting adenomas.(4) In a study by Hertel et al, five of the seven postpartum patients with tubular adenomas, first observed the lump during pregnancy, leading to the authors' conclusion that tubular adenomas and lactating adenomas are two ends of a spectrum, the latter with secretory changes associated with physiological states of pregnancy.
Usually, lactating adenomas are slow growing tumors which are smaller than 5cm in size and are well demarcated from the surrounding breast tissue.(6) In a series of 14 lactating adenomas by James et al, most of the tumors were 2.5- 3.5cm in size.
Data of 26 and 16 balance measurements were collected from dry and lactating Holstein cows, respectively, in the National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region.
The trials were performed for 14 days in dry and lactating cows.
To quantify risk to the developing infant from maternal [CI[O.sub.4].sup.-] exposure, we developed a PBPK model for perchlorate and iodide in the lactating and neonatal rat, focusing on the transfer of anions through milk and [CI[O.sub.4].sup.-]-induced inhibition of iodide in the thyroid as the measures of internal dose.
The perchlorate and iodide rat lactation models have compartments for the thyroid, stomach, skin, kidney, liver, fat, and plasma in the lactating dam and suckling neonate, and the mammary gland and milk in the dam.
X rays of the lower vertebrae revealed that the bone density of lactating women decreased 4.2 percent, despite calcium supplements.
Nipple measurements of parous bears were taken 78 times on nonlactating and 66 times on lactating individuals.
Nipple dimensions and volume for parous lactating bears decreased throughout the spring months; increased through the summer months and remained large, except for a dip in September, through October; and then decreased.