Non-lactational breast abscesses are often sub-areolar and were first described as fistulas of lactiferous ducts
by Zuska et al.
To assess the prevalence of TDLU in the nipple we modified our grossing protocol, which consisted of submission of 1 sagittal section including entire cross-section of the nipple, underlying lactiferous ducts
, and proximal-to-the nipple areolar skin.
Papillary lesions of the breast occur most frequently in the major lactiferous ducts
. Benign intraductal papilloma is a solitary lesion of the duct that typically presents when small and nonpalpable because of the occurrence of spontaneous nipple discharge.
Inverted nipples are quite common and are simply a variation of the norm and occur because the lactiferous ducts
that tether the nipple are too short.
Pathological findings were a clearly defined proliferation of ductules around dilated lactiferous ducts
. Some ductules showed micropapillary epithelial hyperplasia.
Local mucosal injury causes actinomycotic infection of the lactiferous ducts
. Most cases of actinomycosis of the breast have involved premenopausal women like our case (14).
Intraductal papillomas are generally solitary and located in the subareolar region in the major and lactiferous ducts
, hence the derivation of the term central/solitary papilloma.
Lymph vessels of the adult mammary gland originate in the interlobular connective tissue and the walls of lactiferous ducts
. These communicate with the overlying cutaneous lymphatic plexus, especially around the nipple in subareolar plexus, and then drain to the axilla.