lactose


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Related to lactose: lactose intolerance

lactose

(lăk`tōs) or

milk sugar,

white crystalline disaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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). It has the same empirical formula (C12H22O11) as sucrose (cane sugar) and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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). It yields the simple sugarssugar,
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates. Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simple sugars; they include fructose and glucose.
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 D-glucose and D-galactose on hydrolysishydrolysis
, chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water.
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, which is catalyzed by lactase, an enzyme found in gastric juice. People who lack this enzyme after childhood cannot digest milkmilk,
liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals as food for their young. The milk of the cow is most widely used by humans, but the milk of the mare, goat, ewe, buffalo, camel, ass, zebra, reindeer, llama, and yak is also used.
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 and are said to be lactose intolerant. Lactose is formed in the mammary glands of all lactating animals and is present in their milk. It is produced commercially as a byproduct of milk processing. When milk sours, the lactose in it is converted by bacteria to lactic acid. Lactose is less sweet-tasting than sucrose and is not found in plants.

Lactose

Milk sugar or 4-O-β- d -galactopyranosyl- d -glucose. This reducing disaccharide is obtained as the α- d anomer (see formula, where the asterisk indicates a reducing group); the melting point is 202°C (396°F). Lactose is found in the milk of

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mammals to the extent of approximately 2–8%. It is usually prepared from whey, which is obtained by a by-product in the manufacture of cheese. Upon concentration of the whey, crystalline lactose is deposited.

Lactose

 

(milk sugar), C12H22O11, a disaccharide, formed from D-galactose and D-glucose radicals; it exists in the a- and β- forms. Crystalline lactose is obtained in three modifications: α-form (melting point, 223°C), β-form (melting point, 252°C), and the α-form monohydrate (melting point, 202°C). Lactose is soluble in water, diluted ethyl alcohol, and pyridine and insoluble in ether and absolute alcohol; it separates into galactose and glucose during acidic hydrolysis.

Lactose occurs in free form (2–8.5 percent) in the milk of all mammals and is included in the composition of oligosaccharides, glycolipides, and glycoproteins. It has also been found in the pollen tubes of some plants. Lactose biosynthesis is effected by the enzyme galactosyl transferase, which catalyzes the transfer of the galactose radical from uridine diphosphate galactose to D-glucose. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose proceeds upon action of β-galactosidase. The absence of galactosidase in the mucous membrane of a newborn’s intestines is a hereditary disease that may lead to death if lactose is not excluded from the diet.

D. M. BELEN’KII

lactose

[′lak‚tōs]
(biochemistry)
C12H22O11 A disaccharide composed ofD-glucose andD-galactose which occurs in milk. Also known as lactin; milk sugar.

lactose

a white crystalline disaccharide occurring in milk and used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and baby foods. Formula: C12H22O11
References in periodicals archive ?
What are the application areas for this new product?*Lactase is mainly used in the dairy industry to convert light sweetness and low-solubility lactose to sweeter and more soluble monosaccharides (such as glucose and galactose).
When the small intestine is unable to produce enough (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/lactose-intolerance/causes/) lactase , or the enzyme necessary to digest lactose, intolerance happens.
However, lactose intolerants don't make enough lactase, meaning they can't properly digest lactose ingredients.
It is believed that in early life, babies have immature digestive system and their gut does not produce sufficient quantity of lactase enzyme which was needed to digest the lactose. So the undigested lactose cannot get absorbed by the small intestine and enters into the colon where it is fermented by bacteria and produces lactic acid and hydrogen gas.
A study points that non-persistence of lactose, or lactose intolerance, is found in 65% of the world's population (7), affecting around 2% to 15% of people of North European descent, 60 to 80% of blacks and Latinos, and 80% to 100% of Native Americans and Asians (5).
Scientists at the University of Tennessee characterized the effects of propylene glycol on the crystallization properties of lactose in spray-dried whey protein concentrate (WPC) and in aqueous solutions at refrigeration conditions.
Goat's milk may be an alternative, as it contains about 10 percent less lactose than cow's milk.
In addition, many packaged, prepared foods, such as breads, cookies, pastries, instant potatoes, nutrition bars, processed meats, snack chips, and salad dressings, are made with ingredients that contain lactose (see sidebar).
"In a country that loves its milk, lactose intolerance is a highly underrated problem.