HepG2 human liver cancer cells (obtained from VACSERA, Egypt) were utilized for the cytotoxicity test of root extracts of Lactuca serriola. Cell viability was recorded with the MTT method .
PCR confirmed rolB integration in Lactuca serriola, and a fragment of the same size (386 bp) was amplified from each of the 5 survived hairy root lines (Figure 2).
This is the first study that compares the phenolic and flavonoid contents and the corresponding gene expression (CHI, PAL, FLS, and CHS) of transgenic and nontransgenic roots in Lactuca serriola.
L., T, Plur, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.
Two main forms are recognized within Lactuca serriola, based on
Recently, Lactuca serriola has spread throughout Europe as an
Opportunistic species (Cirsium arvense, Collinsia parviflora, Gayophytum diffusum, and Lactuca serriola), which frequently were sparse at individual sampling points, were sampled along 1 m wide belt transects between sampling points.
Of the exotic perennials, Cirsium arvense was most abundant at the Yellowstone Lake location, reaching mean densities of ~1100 stems/ha, whereas Lactuca serriola did not differ in density among locations (Table 8).
1 Asteraceae Native Cony--a canadensis Asteraceae Native Erigeron annuus Asteraceae Native Lactuca canadensis Asteraceae Introduced Lactuca serriola
Asteraceae Native Pyrrhopappus carolinianus Asteraceae Native Solidago canadensis Asteraceae Native Taraxacum officinale Brassicaceae Introduced Capsella burla pastoris Convolvulaceae Native Calystegia sepium Chenopodiaceae -- Chenopodium sp.
(*) Lactuca serriola
L.; Prickly Lettuce; Dry roadside; Rare but locally frequent; C = 0; BSUH 14754.
Tabla 5 Umbilico gaditani-Parietarietum judaicae (Parietario-Galion muralis, Parietarietalia, Parietarietea) Na de inventarios 11 Caracteristicas Parietaria judaica V Centranthus ruber III Umbilicus gaditanus II Erigeron karvinskianus II Cymbalaria muralis II Cyrtomiumfalcatum I Antirrhinum majus + Companeras Conyza bonariensis II Bromus rigidus II Lactuca serriola
II Hedypnois cretica I Galium aparine I Mercurialis annua I Ageratina adenophora I Nicotiana paniculata I Ademas: Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus tenerrimus, Aster squamatus, Helminthotheca echioides, Salvia verbenaza, Lolium rigidum, Vulpia myuros, Oxalis pes-caprae, Geranium purpureum, Sonchus congestus, Aeonium arboreum var.
L.: (*); Prickly Lettuce; abundant; fields, especially in Units 3 and 4; BSUH 11453, 11454.