waste

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waste:

see solid wastesolid waste,
discarded materials other than fluids. In the United States in 1996, nearly 210 million tons—about 4.3 lb. (2 kg) per person daily (up from 2.7 lb./1.2 kg in 1960)—were collected and disposed of by municipalities.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Waste

 

(in industry), any material that is left over from the production process. Wastes include materials with a wide range of compositions and physicochemical properties. Examples are such by-products as ore fines, cuttings, and turnings; inert substances that are separated from minerals and fuels during enrichment; and ashes and slags that are formed during the combustion of fuels. The amount of waste depends on the production technology used, the quality of the starting materials, the dimensions of the material, and the way in which the production processes are coordinated.

Progress in engineering has sharply reduced quantities of waste; furthermore, a significant portion of industrial waste is

Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents used by capitalist countries
 StructurePhysiological classificationChemical behavior
1The structure of a representative compound is shown
Tabun ................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Sarin..............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Soman...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Phosphorylthiocholines1 ....Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Hydrogen cyanide...........HCNGeneral poisonUnstable
Cyanogen chloride............ClCNGenera l poisonUnstable
Phosgene..............OCCl2Choking agentUnstable
Mustard gas...............S(CH2CH2Cl)2Choking agent, vesicantStable
Trichlorotriethylamine .........N(CH2CH2Cl)3Choking agent, vesicantStable
Lewisite.........Cl2AsCH=CHClChoking agent, vesicantStable
Chloroacetophenone.......Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, irritantFuming, unstable
o-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile.Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, sternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Chloropicrin.............Cl3CNO2Choking agent, lacrimator, irritantUnstable
Adamsite...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedSternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Lysergic acid diethylamide ...Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPsychotomimeticUnstable
Quinuclidine ester of diphenyl-oxyacetic acid.................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPscychotomimeticUnstable

used as a raw material for producing by-products. A decrease in the quantities of waste and the reuse of waste significantly reduces the consumption of raw materials and supplies. Production costs are lowered, while production efficiency is raised. In the USSR and elsewhere new technologies are being devised, while the existing production processes are being improved in order to maximize the reduction in the quantities of waste and, where possible, to completely eliminate waste.

Closed-loop recycling is one new development. The quantities of waste in the form of waste water and industrial air pollution have been sharply reduced, particularly in the chemical, metallurgical, and petroleum-refining and processing industries as well as in the coal, pulp, and paper industries. Another method of waste reduction is the creation of industrial complexes in which one plant utilizes the waste products of another plant as raw materials. Such measures are means of conserving natural resources as well as of improving the quality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and soil. In the USSR the reduction or utilization of waste are part of the plan for the supply of raw materials and for the development of industrial production. Incentives in the form of bonuses for workers serve to encourage the practice of collecting, storing, and shipping wastes in many branches of industry.

A. I. IMSHENETSKII


Waste

 

by-products created in the processing of textile fibers. In Soviet industry, waste is classified as visible or invisible. Visible waste includes selvage waste—processed fiber that has emerged as waste from the spinning of semifinished articles and is returned for reprocessing; reworkable waste—soiled fiber, noils, and waste from opening machines that can be used in spinning after it is loosened and cleaned; wadded material, used to make wadding; and unusable waste. Invisible waste results from the removal of moisture from the raw material and the dispersion of fiber particles. Waste is undesirable because it reduces production output and increases the prime cost of production.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

waste

[wāst]
(engineering)
Rubbish from a building.
Dirty water from mining, industrial, and domestic use.
The amount of excavated material exceeding fill.
(mining engineering)
The barren rock in a mine.
The refuse from ore dressing and smelting plants.
The fine coal made in mining and preparing coal for market.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

waste

1. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area, or appurtenance which contains no fecal matter.
3. Waste material such as garbage, refuse, rubbish, and trash.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

waste

1. a land or region that is devastated or ruined
2. a land or region that is wild or uncultivated
3. Physiol
a. the useless products of metabolism
b. indigestible food residue
4. disintegrated rock material resulting from erosion
5. Law reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect, esp by a life-tenant
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Teachers chief Peter MacMe-namin said: "This Government has laid waste to education provision at all levels, and once again the most vulnerable will suffer most."
I am reminded of a silly press report 50 years ago - "The whole area was laid waste by an explosion and typewriters were knocked off tables".
The twin guitar attack of Willie Adler and Mark Morton laid waste to the Academy while frontman Randy Blythe tore through such classics as Laid To Rest, Redneck and the pit-pummelling Black Label.
"I speak for those whose land is being laid waste, whose homes are being destroyed, whose culture is being subverted," he said.
AFTER Thatcher and her erstwhile acolyte John Major laid waste to most of the north,millions lived in the hope as Labour's theme song went -`Things CanOnly Get Better'.
One of their first targets was the Celtic holy community at Lindisfarne in 793AD, where they terrified the monks and laid waste to their land.
After the War and the Wall,(4) the square was laid waste and became part of the death zone.
The government, and especially the rice farmers, remembered well the disastrous harvests of 1975 to 1979, when the tiny pest laid waste to 10 million acres of rice--a devastating loss for a country of small farms, where a half acre often must support a family of five.
But the biggest disaster of all was that caused by Maggie Thatcher, who destroyed our once-proud mining industry and laid waste to almost all mining communities.
The venerable lady might not have laid waste to so much of the country if she and her friends had any inkling of just how much damage they were doing to the image of the Conservative Party.
The hair is not so much layered as laid waste. You'd be safer with Sweeney Todd.
The earthquake that laid waste to San Francisco in 1906 brought the San Andreas fault into the seismologic limelight.