land use


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land use,

exploitation of land for agricultural, industrial, residential, recreational, or other purposes. Because the United States historically has a laissez-faire attitude toward land use, the land has been exploited at will for economic gain. Only in recent decades have Americans realized that land is not a limitless commodity. Increasing population and industrial expansion have generated urban sprawl, with thousands of square miles of open space being taken over annually for housing and business. As a result congestion and widespread pollutionpollution,
contamination of the environment as a result of human activities. The term pollution refers primarily to the fouling of air, water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid waste).
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, along with depletion of water and mineral resources and destruction of wilderness and wildlife habitats, have become increasingly severe (see also environmentalismenvironmentalism,
movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. The philosophical foundations for environmentalism in the United States were established by Thomas Jefferson,
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).

Land-Use Policy

Since environmental problems arise largely from the way land is used, traditional land-use policy has come under challenge. Zoning regulations are one example of legal limitations on land use. Another is the common-law concept of nuisance, which places limits and responsibilities on the rights of ownership. On such grounds, pressure for land-use reform has sharply intensified since the 1960s. It is argued that as accessible land grows scarcer, its function becomes more critical, therefore choice of that function should no longer be dictated by private profit or local convenience. Moreover, local laws and zoning regulations are inadequate for settling land-use questions involving regions that cut across local boundaries, such as wetlands, shorelines, and floodplains, or large-scale facilities such as strip mines, sewer systems, power plants, and highways. As a consequence, environmentalists have gone to court to prevent or resite the construction of projects that would degrade the environment. Land-use court battles have been waged over the siting of jetports, petroleum refineries, offshore tanker depots and drilling rigs, nuclear power stations, high-voltage transmission lines, dams, and even shopping centers and housing developments. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), in its periodic inventory of natural resources, reported in 1999 that during the five-year period from 1992 to 1997 the nation's privately held forests, croplands, and wetlands were lost to development in and around cities and towns at twice the rate they were from 1982 to 1992.

The land-use policy of such public lands as the U.S. national parks and forests is a matter of continuing controversy. Under the control of the USDA, the policy is to protect the environment while permitting some commercial exploitation of renewable resources. Critics charge that the encouragement of tourism overutilizes already fragile ecological systems and that the USDA favors timber companies over preservation of old-growth forests. In the early 1990s the issue was starkly illustrated by the spotted owl, a threatened species whose habitat in old-growth forests under federal supervision was threatened by timber-cutting policies. One possible solution is to create a biosphere reserve, which provides a core area in which no disturbance to the ecosystem is permitted, a transition area in which experimental research is allowed, and a buffer zone that protects the biosphere from external development pressures.

Legislation

Legislative action has also been sought, with considerable success. The scope of legislation has expanded, as areas once considered of marginal value, such as the polar regions, temperate wetlands, and tropical rain forests, are included in environmental planning. Although varying in scope and stringency, land-use laws are now in force in most of the United States. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 requires that federal agencies file statements assessing the environmental impact of proposed projects (see environmental impact statementenvironmental impact statement,
analysis of the impact that a proposed development, usually industrial, will have on the natural and social environment. It includes assessment of long- and short-term effects on the physical environment, such as air, water, and noise pollution,
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). Agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission must now subject their land-use proposals to the Environmental Protection Agency and therefore to public scrutiny. This requirement, along with other legislation empowering citizens to sue industry and government for failure to comply with air pollutionair pollution,
contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the
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 and water pollutionwater pollution,
contamination of water resources by harmful wastes; see also sewerage, water supply, pollution, and environmentalism. Industrial Pollution
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 standards, has profoundly affected land-use decisions. Although conservatives sometimes criticize legislation for the time-consuming and costly obligations it places on private business, environmental activists argue that the act promotes only a modest level of conservation.

Bibliography

See R. W. Howard, The Vanishing Land (1985); S. Plotkin, Keep Out: The Struggle for Land Use Control (1986).

Land use

The manner in which a particular piece of property or district is permitted to be used; typical usage includes residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, and agricultural.
References in periodicals archive ?
'We'll provide technical assistance to LGUs (local government units) that haven't yet integrated or mainstreamed climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) into their comprehensive land use plans (CLUPs),' HLURB Policy Development Group officer Julia Collado said.
A conceptual land use plan addresses the general nature of proposed land uses for a specified area.
The two are as different as our Constitution and its enabling laws!The National Land Policy provided for the formulation of a national land use policy, which sets the framework for land use management in Kenya.
The SMBC of Eutrudepts and Hapludolls of different land uses (Table-4) illustrated the higher SMBC (269.95 m / Kg) in forest soils and the lowest (136.182 mg / Kg) in cultivated land use.
Given the importance of land use and factors influencing soil erosion and sediment-associated nutrient loss, erosion rate in each land use was determined by means of a rain simulator designed in Gorgan University of Agricultural Research and Natural Resources, entitles as BSTF1.
The results of the present study confirmed that land use change in the study area significantly impacted water bodies and soil carbon content.
Nonetheless, this study's predictions indicate that the planned change in land use from dry cropping to zero-tillage irrigated cropping systems will not prevent SOC decreases, and that alternative land uses should be examined to conserve this carbon content if sustaining SOC content is a priority.
Igwe CA (2001) Effects of land use on some structural properties of an Ultisol in south-eastern Nigeria.
These varied forms of practice and location raise implications for urban planning and municipal zoning since much urban agriculture falls outside the range of traditional land use designations.
Significance of the fixed effects of land use, depth, and their interaction was examined using approximate F statistics.
The city also has its own planning procedures directed towards the reduction of noise pollution, addressed in the future land use element of its comprehensive plan.
Researchers used a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land use changes and found that corn-based ethanol would nearly double greenhouse gas emissions over 30 years and increase greenhouse gases for 167 years.

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