land-grant colleges and universities

land-grant colleges and universities,

U.S. institutions benefiting from the provisions of the Morrill Act (1862), which gave to the states federal lands for the establishment of colleges offering programs in agriculture, engineering, and home economics as well as in the traditional academic subjects. Another provision of the Morrill Act called for the establishment of a military training program, now part of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), at every land-grant college. Although the act itself did not stipulate that the training be compulsory, nearly every state had made it so by the 1920s. After World War II, however, ROTC was generally put on an elective basis. The Hatch Act (1887) expanded the land-grant program by providing federal funds for research and experiment stations; the Smith-Lever Act (1914) granted federal support for extension work in agriculture and home economics (see Cooperative Extension ServiceCooperative Extension Service,
in the United States, former agency of the Dept. of Agriculture, est. 1914 by the Smith-Lever Act. Designed to provide Americans with the understanding and skills essential for solving farm, home, and community problems, the service offered
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). Because of the Morrill Act's stress on the practical arts, the land-grant system has come to include most of the nation's agricultural colleges and a large number of its engineering schools. In 1994, 29 Native American tribal colleges gained land-grant status, bringing the total number of land-grant institutions to 105.

Bibliography

See E. D. Ross, Democracy's College (1942); A. Nevins, The State Universities and Democracy (1962); H. R. Allen, Open Door to Learning (1963).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) awarded $16 million for 42 grants to support research, teaching and extension activities at historically Black land-grant colleges and universities. NIFA awards competitive grants to the 1890 land-grant institutions that address key problems of national, regional and multi-institutional importance in sustaining all components of agriculture, including farm efficiency and profitability, ranching, renewable energy, forestry (both urban and agroforestry), aquaculture, organic agriculture, rural communities and entrepreneurship, human nutrition, food safety, family and consumer sciences, biotechnology and conventional breeding.
He will represent land-grant colleges and universities created under the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, a category that includes the University of Arkansas.
Data are from a study of graduates from three Historically Black Land-Grant Colleges and Universities in Alabama and Tennessee.
Hand in hand with the original land-grant system was the creation of the historically black land-grant colleges and universities, authorized in 1890, mainly to assist minority farmers, especially in the South.
The Magnificant Charter: The Origin and Role of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges and Universities. Hicksville, N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1978.
But it is the group of Black land-grant colleges and universities, known as the "1890s" for the year they were designated by Congress under the second Morrill Act, that Esters says he wants to equip for a new marketplace while helping them meet "the challenges of institutional advancement and academic enhancement."