forms and remains fast along land masses.
Such sea ice system services (Eicken et al., 2009) also support ice use by people, including travel or hunting on landfast ice
by coastal residents as well as the construction of ice roads by resource extraction industries.
The coastal and archipelago areas are covered by landfast ice
, while further out drift ice fields are found.
This is likely because in the western part of the Chukchi Sea, heavy ice hummocks, landfast ice
, and compact drifting ice are common in winter.
Thus there is insignificant difference between reflectances of brackish landfast ice
and lake-ice when they are covered by a similar snow cover.
Except for landfast ice
along the coasts, the ice in the Hudson Strait remains mobile all winter; leads open and close frequently, and the ice can become heavily ridged by March (Saucier et al., 2004).
Consequently, landfast ice
often occupies a significant area along the northern coast in normal and severe winters, making the drift ice zone even narrower.
This pattern occurs because of preferential thawing of sediment-laden ice in the spring and retention of melting intertidal ice over the tidal flats by the solid landfast ice
in deeper water (McCann and Dale, 1986).
To further explore the relationships among variables, we used a Pearson correlation matrix weighted by proportional survey effort, which included the variables year, survey date, temperature, wind speed, proportion of landfast ice
, proportion of open water, and ringed seal density.
The marine breeding habitats of ringed seals are associated with landfast ice
and pack ice areas (e.g., McLaren, 1958; Finley et al., 1983; Lydersen and Gjertz, 1986; Kunnasranta, 2001), while Saimaa ringed seals give birth in snowdrifts on the shorelines of islands or islets close to the shore (Sipila, 1990).
Density distribution of fish in the presence of whales at the Admiralty Inlet landfast ice
The climatology characterized the spatial distribution and variability of landfast ice
through an average annual cycle and identified the mean onset date, breakup date, and duration of landfast ice