By early 1943, the Ro 43 was being replaced on Italy's battleships by a long-ranged version of an obsolescent single-seat fighter, the Reggiane Re 2000, a landplane.
The airplane adopted by the Royal Air Force in the mid-1930s as its principal coastal defense weapon, the Avro Anson, a twin-engined landplane, had a range of 660 miles.
Germany's chief reliance for long range maritime missions during the first two years of the war was on a landplane, the Focke Wulf FW 200C, an airliner converted hurriedly for military use only after the outbreak of war.
Comparatively few of either type were built, and in action they were generally swamped by the greater numbers of landplanes that the Americans had available, but a landplane version of the N1K1 was produced in significant numbers and by the end of the war was replacing the Zero as the Imperial Japanese Navy's principal fighter type.
The Imperial Japanese Navy also had an excellent though obsolescent landplane bomber with a longer range than the RAF's Whitley, the Mitsubishi G3M3, but lacked the organizational resources to train crews for patrol work in addition to training crews to operate the G3M3's bomber replacement, the Mitsubishi G4M1 and G4M2.
65) In November 1943, a unit equipped with a four-engined landplane, the Junkers Ju 290A, began operating from a base near Bordeaux, but one was shot down almost immediately by a British long-ranged fighter and two were destroyed by carrier-borne fighters in February 1944.
In 1917, of 168 sightings by British aircraft of German submarines, twenty-eight were by naval airships, sixty-eight by flying boats, sixty-six by floatplanes, and only six by landplanes.
Experts had concluded that landplanes were more economical to run on a scheduled transatlantic service, and that their engines' greater reliability made emergency landings on water irrelevant.
Long distances, requiring larger aircraft with sufficient fuel capacity to carry a useful payload to a remote destination, together with scattered populations, tropical weather that periodically reduced airstrips to mud slides, and an abundance of sheltered moorings in bays, lakes and estuaries meant that flying boats could be employed where landplanes were scarcely practicable.
These aircraft did not have the fuel capacity of multi-engined flying boats, and could not therefore operate where landplanes of superior performance could not also operate.
23) Flying boats and floatplanes also had the disadvantage that though their liquid runways were invulnerable to bombing, they were much more exposed at their moorings than landplanes were in the massive revetments provided at aerodromes in combat zones.