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A surgical incision through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a surgical incision in the abdominal cavity. Although laparotomy was even known to ancient physicians, it was seldom used before the introduction of antisepsis and asepsis because of the danger of infection. It provides access to the organs of the abdominal cavity and lesser pelvis and is performed in cases of inflammation and tumors, as well as in cases of stomach wounds and other injuries; it is sometimes used as an independent procedure for diagnostic purposes (celiotomy, or diagnostic laparotomy). It is sometimes combined with thoracotomy.

Laparotomy is performed using a transverse, vertical, or oblique incision. The purpose of the surgical procedure determines the patient’s position on the operating table—completely horizontal or with the head of the table raised or lowered or a bolster placed under the small of the back. Preoperative preparation of the patient and the anesthesia used depend on the nature of the procedure and the patient’s condition. The abdominal cavity is closed by layer-by-layer suturing of the anterior abdominal wall, with insertion of drains if required.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The present study showed that administration of gastrografin may be associated with improvement of patients with ASBO, and lower number of previous laparotomies may be a predictor of successful conservative treatment of these patients.
The current study was planned to compare the mean pain scores on second post-operative day in scalpel versus diathermy skin incisions of midline laparotomies.
Of this total group, 72 patients went on to require two or more repeat laparotomies and a total of 182 repeat laparotomies were performed on this patient cohort.
The goal of this study is to compare pre and post laparotomy diagnosis and to identify the rate of negative laparotomies as to guide practicing surgeons confronted with acute abdomen.
Laparotomies for stab wound, GSW and blunt trauma carry respectively 97%, 88% and 86% survival.
Selective non-operative management of cases with abdominal gunshot injuries decreases the rate of negative laparotomies. In addition, the non-operative management of penetrating abdominal gunshot wounds means reduced potential for post-operative complications, depending on the prevention of negative laparotomies (7, 8).
This difference of wound dehiscence rates between elective and emergency laparotomies is statistically significant (P<0.05).
There were 8 (7%) negative laparotomies in the series.
The 6 non-gynaecological laparotomies were all performed in the same two hospitals, both of which had a regular visiting surgery specialist, but a specialist performed only one of the laparotomies.
You are probably an expert at placing drains in appropriate patients during laparotomies, but if you are like me, you've never placed one during a laparoscopy.
[20] Hemming et al [13] demonstrated that laparoscopic staging in intraabdominal malignancies is of great value and will prevent up to 36% of futile laparotomies.