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A surgical incision through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a surgical incision in the abdominal cavity. Although laparotomy was even known to ancient physicians, it was seldom used before the introduction of antisepsis and asepsis because of the danger of infection. It provides access to the organs of the abdominal cavity and lesser pelvis and is performed in cases of inflammation and tumors, as well as in cases of stomach wounds and other injuries; it is sometimes used as an independent procedure for diagnostic purposes (celiotomy, or diagnostic laparotomy). It is sometimes combined with thoracotomy.

Laparotomy is performed using a transverse, vertical, or oblique incision. The purpose of the surgical procedure determines the patient’s position on the operating table—completely horizontal or with the head of the table raised or lowered or a bolster placed under the small of the back. Preoperative preparation of the patient and the anesthesia used depend on the nature of the procedure and the patient’s condition. The abdominal cavity is closed by layer-by-layer suturing of the anterior abdominal wall, with insertion of drains if required.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
- Furthermore, there has been a significant rise in the cases of diseases such as colon cancer, hernia, appendicitis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcers among the masses that have led to a growing need for laparotomy surgeries.
In univariate analysis, longer duration of symptoms before admission and more than one previous laparotomy were the significant predictors of failure of conservative treatment in all patients with ASBO (p= 0.024 and p= 0.001, respectively).
The decision was taken for emergency laparotomy with two to three units of blood.
3), while 4 cases underwent surgery for laparotomy. Nine cases followed the watch and wait (WAW) policy for observation due to suspected variceal hemorrhage of left-sided portal hypertension.
Patients of both genders (18-60 years of age) were included who were operated through midline laparotomy for cute abdomen due to trauma, intestinal perforation and intestinal obstruction.
We were however, not able to pick a single case short of laparotomy except in those who were already harboring mycobacteria in their lungs.
Gallbladder was found to be absent during initial diagnostic laparoscopic assessment of intraperitoneal organs in all the patients resulting in conversion to exploratory laparotomy in the five patients.
Medical records were retrieved using international classification of diseases (ICD) codes 54.11 for emergency exploratory laparotomy and 560.9, 751.1, 751.2 for SBO in children.
KEYWORD: Bowel ischemia, Laparotomy, Neonatal Volvulus, Second look.
The nine studies were unable to conclude if gender, postoperative higher levels of care, length of hospital stay, documentation of pre-and postoperative mortality risk and nutritional planning and admission from extended community care, affect mortality in high risk general surgical patients undergoing an emergency laparotomy.
The ACS service has 24/7 OR access, but also maintains a mobile cart of materials appropriate for emergency bedside laparotomy for those too ill for transport.
Surgery for femoral hernia incarceration triggers even more frustration, because of tightly oriented vascular structures around the hernia gate, fear of iliopubic tract violation, need of laparotomy for adequate bowel inspection and/or resection, and finally the choice of repair.