This is simply a measure of the environmental lapse rate
between roughly 5000 and 10,000 ft.
(16) Discrepancies in the lapse rates
between the base case and the case without expenses (6.11 vs.
Vertical temperature profile data from the raptors indicated the success of this approach with absolute temperatures and lapse rates
consistent with those measured by the weather stations.
This very good agreement between the two independent sets of instruments, in addition to the absolute calibration procedure for the Tinytags described above, gives us high confidence in our results regarding near-surface glacier temperature lapse rate
values and changes.
Thus, as lapse rates
continue to be low, and interest rates continue to be low, insurers find the pricing on their old policies to have an increasingly severe shortfall, leading companies to go back to their state insurance departments to request a premium increase to ensure the financial strength and viability of the insurer.
Interannual variations in melt duration are closely related to July 500 mb heights over the Queen Elizabeth Islands because of their impact on near-surface air temperature gradients: high mean geopotential heights result in shallow surface air temperature lapse rates
and increased melt extent and duration, while low heights produce steep lapse rates
and reduced melt extent and duration (Wang et al., 2005).
(2) This cost structure provides insurers a strong motive toward lower lapse rates
. Too high a lapse rate
may impair the ability of the insurer to recoup these costs, given the projected benefits payouts required under these lines of insurance.
[E.sub.p] decreases upslope more rapidly for high-temperature lapse rates
([Gamma] = 7.5 K/km) than for low values closer to the saturating adiabatic lapse rate
([Gamma] = 5.5 K/km, Fig.
Dotted red lines represent dry adiabais where the lapse rate
is around 3 degrees C per 1000 feet.
To simplify, the first stage of modeling lapse is based on the assumption that the lapse rate
is independent from the financial markets and can be assimilated to a higher death rate in our model.
Maybe it's 9.8 (in [degrees]C per km, the dry adiabatic lapse rate
), 23.5 (in degrees, the declination of Earth with respect to the orbital plane), or 26.5 (in [degrees]C, the sea surface temperature threshold for tropical cyclone formation).
ranging from 200-300 percent of the 2001 CSO) impacts the degree of the shock lapse rate
and resulting antiselection.