large intestine


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large intestine:

see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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Intestine, Large

 

the portion of the gut of vertebrate animals and man that extends from the termination of the small intestine to the anus in cyclostomes, man, and most fishes and mammals. In chondrichthians, lungfish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and monotremes, the large intestine empties into a cloaca. Considerable absorption of water from the residual chyme takes place in the large intestine, with subsequent formation of the feces.

In mammals, including man, the large intestine is divided into the colon, with its ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions, and the rectum. The cecum, or blind gut, is situated at the place where the small intestine passes into the large intestine. In herbivores, marsupials, ungulates, and some rodents the cecum is of considerable size; it is absent in some insecti-vores, ursids, edentates, cetaceans, and hippopotamuses. Many rodents and some predators, prosimians, and monkeys, in addition to man, have a narrow tube at the end of the cecum, the vermiform appendix.

The length of the large intestine is 1–2 m in man, 6.5–14 m in cattle, 0.28–0.9 m in dogs, 0.2–0.45 m in cats, and 3.5–6 m in swine. In man the diameter of the large intestine is 7 cm in the initial section and 4 cm in the descending colon. The wall of the large intestine is composed of mucous, submucous, and serous membranes and a muscular coat. Bacteria multiply enormously in the large intestine; they help form an immunologic barrier and react against pathogenic microbes. The bacteria complete the hydrolization of the components of digestive secretions and of undigested food residues; they also synthesize vitamins, enzymes, and other physiologically active substances.

IA. L. KARAGANOV

large intestine

[′lärj in′tes·tən]
(anatomy)

large intestine

the part of the alimentary canal consisting of the caecum, colon, and rectum. It extracts moisture from food residues, which are later excreted as faeces
References in periodicals archive ?
Estimation of absorption enhancement by medium-chain fatty acids in rat large intestine. Res.
Females were found to have larger values for stomach, small intestine, and large intestine than males in this study.
CD occurs more frequently in young persons, presenting as inflammation involving the entire gastrointestinal tract, though mainly the small and large intestines, and is associated with complications such as intestinal stenosis and fistulation.
CONCLUSION: The current study showed 50.6 % were gastric malignancies of the gastrointestinal malignancies, stomach is the commonest site followed by large intestine, esophagus, and small intestine in decreasing order of frequency.
The scientists treated samples of hog large intestine with cilantro extracts of different concentrations.
The Purdue-designed fiber travels through the large intestine, including the descending colon where illnesses often occur, and enables the bacteria in the large intestine to receive important nutrients.
Examination of the fungi in the intestines suggests an important link between these microbes and inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis, assert researchers at the Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif., who identified and characterized the community of fungi inhabiting the large intestine in a model of the disease.
The large intestine's injuries by their clinical course are the most hard in compare with the small ones.
The use of fresh fruit and vegetables prevents many types of cancer particularly of large intestine and breast, he added.
Lack of water usually causes impaction of the large intestine, which is not as serious as impaction of the cecum or an intestinal blockage or twist (these are harder to treat successfully).
Appendix by Oxford Dictionary definition is "tissue forming a tube shaped sac attached to the large intestine" and by Oxford Medical Dictionary, "the short thin blind-ended tube,6--7cm long, that is attached to the end of the caecum(a pouch at the start of the large intestine ).It has no known function in man and is liable to become infected and inflamed, especially in young adults".

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