(2017), after the removal of the branch apexes, site of the auxin synthesis, its levels are considerably reduced, favoring the increase in the levels of cytokinin, which, associated to the torsion of the canes, induces the breaking of apical dormancy and the development of the lateral buds
, through consequent actuation of the cytokinin in the processes of cell division and elongation.
Number of adults, nymphs, oviposition holes from the grasshopper and number of lateral buds
(shoots) and flower stems per plant of each heliconia species for each level of shade were recorded weekly for 54 weeks.
After seed germination, leaf and lateral bud
were taken from the plantlets to use as explants for callus induction.
Because woody plants also have terminal buds, they are called axillary or lateral buds
. See Figure 4-8 for a diagram of the parts of a leaf.
Stem cuttings use portions of the stem containing terminal or lateral buds
The ratings considered the production of lateral buds
, and broken or dead tops in addition to the percentage of the leaf sheaths showing feeding sign prior to the larvae entering the stalk.
With respect to defoliation release of lateral bud
outgrowth, Cline and Deppong (1999) have found such an effect mainly in red oak among 11 different older woody species analyzed.
If a terminal bud is removed, the next closest lateral bud
inherits its strength and growth.
Cytokinins are involved in numerous physiological processes in plants, including cell division, organ formation, senescence, stomatal opening, lateral bud
break, and sex expression (Arteca, 1996).
Others have shown that decapitation of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris), besides stimulating lateral bud
development, enhances the growth of the primary leaves (6).
On a young (1- to 3-year-old) plant, the leader may be headed at a point (existing lateral bud
) where the first lateral branch is needed.