proposed that unconfined concrete material is modified in strength and strain when there is transverse lateral reinforcement
to confine it, so the constitutive material for confined concrete gains ductility and resistance (Figure 9).
The research of Rao and Arora  presents that the lateral reinforcement enhances the confinement of the anchor block thereby preventing the cracking of concrete leading to cone failure.
The specimen comprise of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement as per the guidelines of ACI 318-11.
Currently, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is widely used for retrofitting concrete structures, but safety implication of using FRP materials is important issue in moderate and high seismicity regions on the Chinese seismic hazard map because ductility and shear capacity of these columns vary with the type of lateral reinforcement
. Generally, in order to avoid catastrophic fragility failure of bridge structure system, it is desired to dissipate energy by postelastic deformation in potential plastic hinge region of bridge pier.
The effects of confinement on a structural column in a building are mainly due to the presence of lateral reinforcement
provided over the column height.
In recent years, both experimental and theoretical studies have done for evaluating the effect of passive confinement provided by lateral reinforcement
for improving the mechanical properties of concrete columns under different loads.
Columns were reinforced with four 12 mm deformed bars as longitudinal reinforcement and 8 mm bars @ 100 mm spacing as lateral reinforcement
. To avoid the crushing of ends due to concentration of load, 8 mm bars @ 25 mm c/c were provided for a length of 100 mm on either end of column.
So this reserve capacity can be utilized by spreading the area of lateral reinforcement
over the longitudinal steel bar in order to reduce the effective length.
Asif Jiffry, general manager of Yaguby, said: "The Avenger by Breitling models have been designed to offer maximum security and reliability, maximum sturdiness and shock-resistance, with a robust construction and its substantial lateral reinforcements
. This is a timepiece for those who enjoy an active lifestyle that edges towards the more extreme."