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(civil engineering)
The act or process of floating a ship after only hull construction is completed; in some cases ships are not launched until after all construction is completed.
The process of transferring energy from a coaxial cable or transmission line to a waveguide.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



In shipbuilding, launching is carried out either after the ship has been completely built or after completion of basic shipbuilding work, such as construction of the hull, mounting of the rudder, and installation of propellers. Launching by simple flotation (floating out) is used in building and repairing large-displacement ships in dry docks and floating docks. End and side launchings by gravity, that is, by sliding or rolling, are carried out from a slip or building berth on sliding ways or carriages that run on inclined tracks; these launching methods are used for ships of medium displacement.

End launching from a longitudinal building berth is usually carried out on ground ways located on both sides of the keel. Both ways extend underwater to a length calculated to make the ship float before it has traveled the entire length of the ways. Sliding ways are put under the ship before launching. Lubrication with grease, soap, mineral substances, paraffin, or petrolatum provides a low coefficient of friction between the runners of the sliding ways and the ground ways. The ship is launched stern first in order to avoid burying the end of the ship in water and to reduce the length of the run through water. Other means to reduce the length of this run include affixing braking boards to the sliding ways and throwing out anchors.

In side launching, four to ten ground ways are used. They may extend far into the water for floating-out launching or only to the water’s surface, or they may terminate several meters above the water. The list taken by the ship during side launching may be as great as 90°.

Provisions are made to prevent a spontaneous movement of the ship caused by gravity. They include special restraining devices made of cable, wood, or steel and launching triggers. If needed, the initial momentum for launching a ship can be supplied by a hydraulic winch, a tugboat, or levers. Mechanized launching is carried out with the aid of carriages, platforms with mechanical hoists, and loading cranes. Such launching is typical for lot building of small and medium-size ships. The launching of large ships is usually accompanied by a festive ceremony and a solemn ritual.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
launchings, among which are the German ROSAT X-ray telescope and NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (both formerly planned as launches by the shuttle), as well as the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite for NASA and the Defense Department.
The first schedule of planned satellite flights that private space launching companies will orbit, released last week, is being hailed in some quarters as a new phase in the U.S.
There are four shuttle flights ahead of Magellan, for example, and even a slight postponement could set back the spacecraft's launching by more than two years, says project manager John Gerpheide of Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
There are a number of other major test milestones to be passed as well, and officials readily acknowledge that the schedule leading to a June 2 launching is "success-oriented.' In other words, the shuttle's return-to-flight calendar contains little room for either malfunctions or mistakes.
But Ron Sawyer, head of the facility's Safety and Quality Assurance Engineering Branch, notes that experience gained from investigating last week's incident could turn out to be important if it helps prevent lightning-triggered launchings on other occasions or at other facilities, where the stakes could well be higher.
The next launching is set for one monthlater, on March 19, this time with another Delta rocket, carrying Indonesia's Palapa B2-P communications satellite.
Another TDRS is scheduled for the fourth launching (many plans for the system require a pair of satellites), tentatively listed for Sept.
Meanwhile, NASA's first post-Challenger launching is tentatively set for May 1.