Utilizing (14) and (28), the first law of thermodynamics
This is because our little heat engine violates the 1st law of thermodynamics
. That law states that there must be conservation of energy.
Due to the presence of this extra term, the field equations do not obey the universal form of first law of thermodynamics
dE = TdS + WdV in this gravity.
Setare, "Generalized second law of thermodynamics
in quintom dominated universe," Physics Letters B, vol.
It is also noted that when temperature is zero, thermal capacity vanishes which also assures the validity of third law of thermodynamics
In this section, we will first calculate the thermodynamic quantities of the black hole obtained in the last section, then check the first law of thermodynamics
, and finally extend the phase space to explore the phase transition behaviors of the black hole.
In addition to the first law of thermodynamics
, there has been a lot of interest in exploring the second law of thermodynamics
in gravitational theories [46-54].
One form of it is the first law of thermodynamics
, which says that energy cannot be created from nothing.
In Section 3, we use the Einstein field equations in Lyra manifold as well as the unified first law of thermodynamics
in order to obtain the generalization of the Misner-Sharp mass  in this theory.
The sections cover definitions and the first law of thermodynamics
; statistical mechanics; the second law of thermodynamics
; phase equilibria; reactions, electrolytes, and nonequilibrium; power generation, refrigeration, and liquefaction; and where to find numbers.
However, the second law of thermodynamics
requires that heat-driven machines receive energy that raises their temperatures above that of the surroundings--so that the flow of heat from hot to cold can run the machines (SN: 10/7/00, p.
It's a law of thermodynamics
, and no one has ever witnessed a sustained violation of it.