The shielding behavior of gamma radiation, optical properties of lead borate containing vanadium and structural properties of vanadium lead glasses show that vanadium plays a rule of a modifier (Rada et al., 2015; Abdelghany et al., 2012; Ghoneim et al., 2011).
Optical and shielding behavior studies of vanadiumdoped lead borate glasses.
Shielding behavior of [V.sub.2][O.sub.5] doped lead borate glasses towards gamma irradiation.
Yawale, "Infrared spectra of zinc doped lead borate glasses," Bulletin of Materials Science, vol.
Saddeek, "Effect of [La.sub.2][O.sub.3] on the structure of lead borate glasses," Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.
Bismuth and lead borate glasses were successfully synthesized by conventional melt quenching.
Elastic modulus (longitudinal, shear, bulk, and Young's) as well as Poisson's ratio and microhardness of bismuth and lead borate glasses with different contents has been determined from the measured ultrasonic velocities and density using the standard relations  (density ([rho]), molar volume ([V.sub.m]), ultrasonic longitudinal ([V.sub.l]) and transverse ([V.sub.s]) velocities, longitudinal modulus (L), shear modulus (G), bulk modulus (K), Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (a), and microhardness (H)):
Oraby, "Density of lead borate glasses in relation to the microstructure," Physics and Chemistry of Glasses, vol.
Golsanamlu, "Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead borate glasses," Bulletin of Materials Science, vol.