The dark chromium oxide thus slowly replaces and covers the yellow color of the lead chromate
, causing the bright yellow areas in paintings to turn dark brown.
3 and 4 suggest that the CY yellow coating surface is much rougher than the rest, the presence of Pb originating from the lead chromate
yellow pigment is very likely due to the exposure of the pigment particles.
Working with C3H/10T1/2 cells, Patierno et al (12) showed that only particulate lead chromate
could induce neoplastic transformation while soluble sodium chromate could not.
Wide range of inorganic pigments include ultramarine blue, lead chromates
, chrome oxide, iron oxide, pearlescents, phosphoroescents, luminescents, cadmium, mixed metal oxides, titanium dioxide and predispersed flush pigments.
The two committees concluded that the alternatives to the pigments, mainly comprising inorganic pigments such as bismuth vanadate and organic pigments like azo diarylides, could not achieve the same levels of technical performance as the lead chromates
. They were also more expensive--some as much as 6-10 times.
The substitution principle particularly applies with regards to the more hazardous powders such as those containing TGIC, TMA and lead chromate
pigments in particular.
As of 2015, the company says it is no longer producing any pigments containing lead chromate
These 10 most reported carcinogens were arsenic, arsenic trioxide, asbestos, benzene, benzidine, lead chromate
, sodium arsenate, sodium arsenite, sodium dichromate, and vinyl chloride (3,4).
Personal-breathing-zone exposure samples documented that employees had substantial airborne exposure to lead, chromium (as lead chromate
), and cadmium components of the various pigments used in the process.
"Cadmium pigments are not toxicologically the same as cadmium," he says, "and lead chromate
pigments are not toxicologically the same as lead.
The British Coatings Federation (BCF) warned that EU authorization of lead chromate
paints would perpetuate a global trade in lead chromate
pigments, including in countries with weak regulations.
Last, the new HEUCO[R]FIT LR pigment preparation line is designed to offer high-quality color solutions for lead chromate