lead poisoning

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lead poisoning



(plŭm`bĭz'əm), intoxication of the system by organic compounds containing leadlead,
metallic chemical element; symbol Pb [Lat. plumbum]; at. no. 82; at. wt. 207.2; m.p. 327.502°C;; b.p. about 1,740°C;; sp. gr. 11.35 at 20°C;; valence +2 or +4.
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. These enter the body by respiration (of dust, fumes, or sprays) or by ingestion of food or other substances that contain lead. Lead poisoning, formerly a leading occupational hazard in industrialized countries, can be an acute episode but is usually a chronic, cumulative disease brought about by continuous exposure.

See also occupational diseaseoccupational disease,
illness incurred because of the conditions or environment of employment. Unlike with accidents, some time usually elapses between exposure to the cause and development of symptoms. In some instances, symptoms may not become evident for 20 years or more.
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Many of the traditional sources of lead in the United States have been minimized by a variety of federal laws, enacted from 1978 on, banning lead paint and glazes and leaded gasolinesgasoline
or petrol,
light, volatile mixture of hydrocarbons for use in the internal-combustion engine and as an organic solvent, obtained primarily by fractional distillation and "cracking" of petroleum, but also obtained from natural gas, by destructive distillation
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, and prohibiting the use of lead pipes in construction and the use of lead solder in food and soda cans. Workplace exposure has been regulated by laws requiring the use of respirators, dust suppressors, and proper ventilation, and lead waste disposal guidelines have been developed. Continuing sources of environmental lead include water that has passed through old lead pipes, paint in older buildings, lead improperly disposed of in public landfills, and industrial sources such as mining, smelting, and recycling processes necessary to produce lead for batteries and other products.

Young children are usually exposed by ingesting paint chips containing lead. This source is most prevalent in poor areas where old, peeling lead-containing paint and plaster in rundown housing is common. Inadequately nourished or emotionally deprived children who resort to chewing inedible things (a condition known as pica) are most susceptible.

Effects and Treatment

Acute lead poisoning can result in abdominal discomfort, nervous system damage, and encephalitis. Chronic exposure is characterized by a blue line on the gums and can lead to damage to the brain, kidneys, nervous system, and red blood cells. Even low levels can contribute to hypertension in older people or to "silent lead poisoning" in exposed children, which affects the developing brain and leads to visual-motor problems, lowered intelligence, shortened attention span, and antisocial behavior. Lower doses may be treated by altering the diet to counteract lead's effects and and cleaning the person's environment to reduce intake. Higher doses are treated with chelating agentschelating agents
. Certain organic compounds are capable of forming coordinate bonds (see chemical bond) with metals through two or more atoms of the organic compound; such organic compounds are called chelating agents.
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, drugs that remove lead from the body, but chelation's effects do not appear to extend to the brain. Symptoms recur upon subsequent exposure, and some of the effects of a mother's exposure can be passed to her children and grandchildren.

Lead poisoning

A condition arising from breathing the fumes of lead compounds, or ingesting lead paint and water contaminated by lead pipes.

lead poisoning

[′led ′pȯiz·ən·iŋ]
Poisoning due to ingestion or absorption of lead over a prolonged period of time; characterized by colic, brain disease, anemia, and inflammation of peripheral nerves.

lead poisoning

acute or chronic poisoning by lead or its salts, characterized by abdominal pain, vomiting, convulsions, and coma
References in periodicals archive ?
4 million ducks were saved from lead poisoning in a single fall flight.
The future of lead poisoning prevention lies in continuous international collaboration and in a search for better health and environmental solutions globally," said Korchevskiy.
Every year, tens of thousands children are screened in China, and a considerable number of children with elevated blood lead and lead poisoning are identified.
Severe cases of lead poisoning occur as an occupational hazard among people working in the metal industry.
While lead poisoning is mainly thought of as a risk for children, adults can be endangered as well, especially those who work in construction and manufacturing.
The group interviewed over 50 families whose children have shown symptoms of lead poisoning in four Chinese provinces of Henan, Hunan, Shaanxi and Yunnan, where metal smelters stand, and Beijing and Shanghai two years ago.
Lead poisoning comes from undue exposure to smelting or recycling plants, and can cause children to suffer hearing loss, anaemia and to not grow properly.
Lead poisoning from ingestion of hunting bullet fragments by avian scavengers such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in many regions of the United States is of great concern to raptor biologists as well as to state and federal wildlife agencies.
The Court's ruling rejected Shell's argument that in order for this fee to be constitutional under California's Proposition 13 and the Sinclair Paint decision, it must be proportional to the gasoline industry's responsibility for cases of childhood lead poisoning.
In Shaanxi province, at least 615 out of 731 children in two villages near the Dongling smelter in the town of Changqing have tested positive for lead poisoning, which can damage the nervous and reproductive systems and cause high blood pressure and memory loss.
We already know that eliminating lead poisoning in children will take a partnership that includes parents, child-care providers, health professionals and the owners of older homes that contain deteriorating lead paint.
The risk of lead poisoning for children under six years of age is much greater than the risk for six-year old children due to frequent behaviors of younger children such as crawling and engaging in hand-to-mouth behavior, which decline with age.