The sulfate ions react with the lead on the surface of the negative plate, forming lead sulfate
and releasing two electrons from each reaction into the electrolyte.
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This process forms particles with a core made of lead chromate sulfate and a shell of lead sulfate
. Irradiation with light favors the reaction of dissolved chromate with the linseed oil to form insoluble chromium oxide, [Cr.sub.2] [O.sub.3], which is deposited in a third layer on the surface of the particle.
It also modulates high-frequency pulses to break up and dissolve the naturally forming lead sulfate
that builds on the battery plates.
but lead sulfate
is more soluble than lead carbonate, which is in turn more soluble than lead phosphate.
The characteristic voltage of the creation of lead sulfate
is about 2 V per cell, so by combining six cells you get a typical 12-V battery.
As a battery ages through use or through sitting unused for a long period of time, lead sulfate
crystals enlarge and can build up excessively to the point that they create a physical barrier across the surface of the plate.
As typical lead-acid batteries age, or sit unused for long periods, lead sulfate
crystals enlarge and can build up to the point they create a physical barrier on the surface of battery plates, until the battery can't accept or release energy.
Whenever a battery discharges, the lead on the negative plate and the lead dioxide on the positive plate both interact with sulfuric acid to make lead sulfate
. Once the battery begins charging again, the lead sulfate
dissolves back into solution.
Most of the dead batteries are unusable because the battery plates collect a lead sulfate
buildup that prevents the battery from accepting a charge.
Therm-Chek RC 376P and Therm-Chek RC 377P are calcium-zinc powder stabilizers designed to replace tribasic lead sulfate
on a part-for-part basis in general-purpose wire and cable-jacketing applications.
This experiment was conducted to test the ability of a commercial circuit to remove lead sulfate
from a heavily sulfated lead-acid battery.