They fabricated a special crystal structure called a superlattice from alternating layers of lead titanate
(an electrically polar material, whereby one end is positively charged and the opposite end is negatively charged) and strontium titanate (an insulator, or a material that doesn't conduct electric current).
Ferroelectric lead titanate
known since long ago is still actively studied [7,8].
A ferroelectric substance such as lead titanate
can be prepared so that heat can switch it from a state suitable for splitting to another state good at releasing, computer simulations showed.
PZT materials are solid solutions of lead zirconate and lead titanate
, often doped with other elements to obtain specific properties.
(PbTi[O.sub.3]) is a well-known ferroelectric ceramic having perovskite structure (AB[O.sub.3]) with the [Pb.sup.2+] ions at the cell corner A-sites, [Ti.sup.4+] ions occupying the body centre B-sites, and the oxygen atoms at the face centre sites.
(PbTi[O.sub.3], PT) is a ferroelectric ceramic that has not been proved to be a technologically important material by itself but is a significant component material in electronics such as capacitors, ultrasonic transducers, thermistors, and optoelectronics [3-7].
The most widely used of all piezoelectric ceramics, known by the acronym PZT, is actually solid solutions between lead zirconate (Pb[ZrO.sub.3]), known as PZ, and lead titanate
(Pb[TiO.sub.3]), known as PT.
A lot of artificial ceramics as barium titanate, lead titanate
, lead zirconate-titanate (PZT), potassium niobate, lithium niobate, and lithium tantalite have similar properties.
A small sample of individual paper topics are sintering and dialectric properties of Nano-BaTiO3 powder synthesized by high-gravity reactive precipitation, effect of lead excess on the formation and dialectric properties of silver dispersed lead titanate
film, study of graphite/bakelite/BaTiO3-based PTC ceramics composite, and fabricating metal patterned ceramic substance by tape casting.
Typically ferroelectric ceramics, such as lead zirconate titanate, (PZT), lead titanate
(PT) and barium titanate have been used as the transducer material in such sensors.
The material has been studied intensively since discovery of the miscibility of lead titanate
and lead zirconate in the 1950s [1-5].