Published lead isotope ratios are also included for comparison as follows: femur samples from Virginia black vulture (BV Bone) and turkey vulture (TV Bone,3) blood samples from California condors (CC Blood,4) lead paint samples from California (paint,4) values from lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) smelting industries, (12) coal emissions, (12) leaded gasoline
(fuel,12) and lead-based ammunition (ammo).4 The following lead isotope ratios are presented: (a) [sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb; (b), [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb; (c), [sup.208]Pb/[sup.204]Pb; (d), [sup.206]Pb/[sup.204]Pb.
where y is the average BLL at time t (2008), [[beta].sub.0] is the intercept, x is the difference between year of the study and year of leaded gasoline
phaseout in the country (UNEP 2012), [x.sub.2] is the quadratic term of the difference, and P1 and [[beta].sub.2] are the coefficients being estimated.
After all, leaded gasoline
has been banned since 1996, so even if it had a major impact on violent crime during the 20th century, there's nothing more to be done on that front.
Finally, lowering the amount of lead in leaded gasoline
Vehicles using leaded gasoline
that contaminated cities' air decades ago have increased aggravated assault in urban areas, researchers say.
The World Bank has suggested that the experience of phasing out leaded gasoline
in the U.S.
With the elimination of leaded gasoline
and lead in solder, the major current sources of lead poisoning in children are paint chips and dust in housing that retains old leaded paint, and in water that picks up lead by passing through old pipes, Jianhong Liu, Ph.D., said at the meeting.
The mean blood lead level in children in Belize (4.94 [micro]g/dL) is below that reported for children in Bombay, India, after the phase-out of leaded gasoline
(mean 8.36 [micro]g/dL) (14) but above the levels reported for Trinidad and Tobago (mean 2.8 [micro]g/dL) (15) and for the city of Nicosia, Cyprus (mean 3.0 [micro]g/dL) (16).
Since lead wasn't completely banned from automobile fuel until January 1, 1996, soil along the LIE had definitely been exposed to exhaust from cars running on leaded gasoline
Remember leaded gasoline
? It would still be poisoning us if the government had not banned its sale at the pump.
Environmentally damaging products that have been phased out include leaded gasoline
, many pesticides and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).