leap

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leap

Music a relatively large melodic interval, esp in a solo part
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

LEAP

Language for the Expression of Associative Procedures.

ALGOL-based formalism for sets and associative retrieval, for TX-2. Became part of SAIL.

"An ALGOL-based Associative Language", J.A. Feldman et al, CACM 12(8):439-449 (Aug 1969).
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EAP

(Extensible Authentication Protocol) A protocol that acts as a framework and transport for other authentication protocols. EAP uses its own start and end messages but then carries any number of third-party messages between the client (supplicant) and access control node such as an access point in a wireless network. See PAP and CHAP.

EAP and LANs


EAP originated with the dial-up PPP protocol in order to support protocols beyond PAP and CHAP. For use on packet networks, EAP Over LAN (EAPOL) was created. EAPOL added new message types and allowed an Ethernet header to be prefixed onto EAP messages so they could be transmitted via Ethernet. Following are various EAP methods used mostly in wireless networks, but also in wired networks. See 802.1X, WPA and 802.11i.

EAP-TLS (EAP-Transport Layer Security)
Uses the handshake protocol in TLS, not its encryption method. Client and server authenticate each other using digital certificates. Client generates a pre-master secret key by encrypting a random number with the server's public key and sends it to the server. Both client and server use the pre-master to generate the same secret key.

EAP-TTLS (EAP-Tunneled TLS)
Like EAP-TLS above except only the server has a certificate to authenticate itself to the client first. As in EAP-TLS, a secure connection (the "tunnel") is established with secret keys, but that connection is used to continue the authentication process by authenticating the client and possibly the server again using any EAP method or legacy method such as PAP and CHAP.

PEAP (Protected EAP)
Similar to EAP-TTLS above except it does not support legacy methods. It only moves EAP frames. Windows XP natively supports PEAP.

LEAP (Light EAP, Cisco LEAP)
From Cisco, first implementation of EAP and 802.1X for wireless networks. Uses preshared keys and MS-CHAP protocol to authenticate client and server to each other. Server generates and sends session key to access point. Client computes session key independently based on data received in the CHAP challenge.

EAP-FAST
(EAP-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling)
Enhancement to LEAP from Cisco that provides an encrypted tunnel to distribute preshared keys known as "Protected Access Credential" (PAC) keys. PAC keys may be continuously refreshed to prevent dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST is defined in Cisco's Cisco Compatible Extensions (see CCX).

EAP-SIM (GSM Cellphones)
For GSM phones that switch between cellular and Wi-Fi networks, depending on which is in range. The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) smart card in the GSM phone (see GSM) contains the secret key used for challenge/response authentication and deriving session keys for encryption.
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References in classic literature ?
A trooper, braver than his fellows, leaped among the kicking, plunging, fear-maddened beasts in a futile attempt to quiet them.
Moving slowly outward upon the two branches Tarzan swung Numa out so that he could not reach the bole of the tree with his raking talons, then he made the rope fast after drawing the lion clear of the ground, dropped his five pigskin sacks to earth and leaped down himself.
When the charging banth was twenty paces from the dead thoat the killer gave vent to its hideous challenge, and with a mighty spring leaped forward to meet it.
His jaws let go their grip, and he leaped backward to escape this strange danger, his lips drawn back from his fangs, his throat snarling, every hair bristling with rage and fright.
But instead, Buck's shoulder was slashed down each time as Spitz leaped lightly away.
Before Akut could guess his intention, or prevent, the boy leaped to the ground directly in the path of the king, who had now succeeded in stimulating himself to a frenzy of fury.
They lurked for me in the forest glades; leaped up, striking, under my feet; squirmed off through the dry grass or across naked patches of rock; or pursued me into the tree-tops, encircling the trunks with their great shining bodies, driving me higher and higher or farther and farther out on swaying and crackling branches, the ground a dizzy distance beneath me.
Dragging the rope behind him, with no thought of escape, but in the hope that he would get at his tormentors, he leaped into the rear passage that ran behind the circle of permanent cages.
Being made blind by fear, he leaped from above, the Pack running by sight, for they were hot and blind on the trail.
Then, with a low growl he leaped upon the ape and buried his fangs in the other's hairy shoulder, clutching the great neck in his mighty fingers.
Then, without waiting to learn the effect of my throw, I wheeled, ran the few steps to the edge, and leaped as far out over that frightful chasm as I could.
His hand leaped to the hilt of his long-sword, but he did not draw, for in the same instant he saw the futility of armed resistance, since behind the first banth came a herd of at least a dozen others.