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Music a relatively large melodic interval, esp in a solo part
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


Language for the Expression of Associative Procedures.

ALGOL-based formalism for sets and associative retrieval, for TX-2. Became part of SAIL.

"An ALGOL-based Associative Language", J.A. Feldman et al, CACM 12(8):439-449 (Aug 1969).
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(Extensible Authentication Protocol) A protocol that acts as a framework and transport for other authentication protocols. EAP uses its own start and end messages but then carries any number of third-party messages between the client (supplicant) and access control node such as an access point in a wireless network. See PAP and CHAP.

EAP and LANs

EAP originated with the dial-up PPP protocol in order to support protocols beyond PAP and CHAP. For use on packet networks, EAP Over LAN (EAPOL) was created. EAPOL added new message types and allowed an Ethernet header to be prefixed onto EAP messages so they could be transmitted via Ethernet. Following are various EAP methods used mostly in wireless networks, but also in wired networks. See 802.1X, WPA and 802.11i.

EAP-TLS (EAP-Transport Layer Security)
Uses the handshake protocol in TLS, not its encryption method. Client and server authenticate each other using digital certificates. Client generates a pre-master secret key by encrypting a random number with the server's public key and sends it to the server. Both client and server use the pre-master to generate the same secret key.

Like EAP-TLS above except only the server has a certificate to authenticate itself to the client first. As in EAP-TLS, a secure connection (the "tunnel") is established with secret keys, but that connection is used to continue the authentication process by authenticating the client and possibly the server again using any EAP method or legacy method such as PAP and CHAP.

PEAP (Protected EAP)
Similar to EAP-TTLS above except it does not support legacy methods. It only moves EAP frames. Windows XP natively supports PEAP.

LEAP (Light EAP, Cisco LEAP)
From Cisco, first implementation of EAP and 802.1X for wireless networks. Uses preshared keys and MS-CHAP protocol to authenticate client and server to each other. Server generates and sends session key to access point. Client computes session key independently based on data received in the CHAP challenge.

(EAP-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling)
Enhancement to LEAP from Cisco that provides an encrypted tunnel to distribute preshared keys known as "Protected Access Credential" (PAC) keys. PAC keys may be continuously refreshed to prevent dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST is defined in Cisco's Cisco Compatible Extensions (see CCX).

EAP-SIM (GSM Cellphones)
For GSM phones that switch between cellular and Wi-Fi networks, depending on which is in range. The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) smart card in the GSM phone (see GSM) contains the secret key used for challenge/response authentication and deriving session keys for encryption.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Your Homes Newcastle worker Rebecca Howett is leading the "Lesley's Leapers" team after Rebecca's mum Lesley was diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease.
THESE little leapers have just arrived in the world.
Washington, May 12 (ANI): Copepods are tiny crustaceans that can accelerate to a speed of 500 body-lengths per second when they perform an escape jump, with greater muscle power than kangaroos, frogs and all other impressive animal leapers - making them the world's best animal jumpers.
Bad leapers over hurdles don't necessarily make bad leapers over fences, however, so his Huntingdon display should not be held too much against him.
Edgerson, 6ft 7ins, is one of the most excit- ing leapers and high- flying dunkers in team history and serves as an Advance Ambassador for the team.
People born on the special date are sometimes known as Leapers.
7 There are currently around 4.1 million 'Leapers' in the world today.
PEOPLE born on February 29 are known as Leapers. There are around 4.1million in the world today.
Work continues on the restoration of the Grand Etang Welcome Centre, the Belmont Estate, the Bon Accord facility and the refurbishment of the Leapers Hill attraction.
Evan and Ellen join thousands of new "Leapers" worldwide.
By catching the frogs' motion on film and also studying iso1ated frogmuscle fibers, they have learned more about why frogs like Dan'l are such great leapers.