leap

(redirected from leaping)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Idioms, Wikipedia.
Related to leaping: limping, galloping

leap

Music a relatively large melodic interval, esp in a solo part

LEAP

Language for the Expression of Associative Procedures.

ALGOL-based formalism for sets and associative retrieval, for TX-2. Became part of SAIL.

"An ALGOL-based Associative Language", J.A. Feldman et al, CACM 12(8):439-449 (Aug 1969).

EAP

(Extensible Authentication Protocol) A protocol that acts as a framework and transport for other authentication protocols. EAP uses its own start and end messages but then carries any number of third-party messages between the client (supplicant) and access control node such as an access point in a wireless network. See PAP and CHAP.

EAP and LANs


EAP originated with the dial-up PPP protocol in order to support protocols beyond PAP and CHAP. For use on packet networks, EAP Over LAN (EAPOL) was created. EAPOL added new message types and allowed an Ethernet header to be prefixed onto EAP messages so they could be transmitted via Ethernet. Following are various EAP methods used mostly in wireless networks, but also in wired networks. See 802.1X, WPA and 802.11i.

EAP-TLS (EAP-Transport Layer Security)
Uses the handshake protocol in TLS, not its encryption method. Client and server authenticate each other using digital certificates. Client generates a pre-master secret key by encrypting a random number with the server's public key and sends it to the server. Both client and server use the pre-master to generate the same secret key.

EAP-TTLS (EAP-Tunneled TLS)
Like EAP-TLS above except only the server has a certificate to authenticate itself to the client first. As in EAP-TLS, a secure connection (the "tunnel") is established with secret keys, but that connection is used to continue the authentication process by authenticating the client and possibly the server again using any EAP method or legacy method such as PAP and CHAP.

PEAP (Protected EAP)
Similar to EAP-TTLS above except it does not support legacy methods. It only moves EAP frames. Windows XP natively supports PEAP.

LEAP (Light EAP, Cisco LEAP)
From Cisco, first implementation of EAP and 802.1X for wireless networks. Uses preshared keys and MS-CHAP protocol to authenticate client and server to each other. Server generates and sends session key to access point. Client computes session key independently based on data received in the CHAP challenge.

EAP-FAST
(EAP-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling)
Enhancement to LEAP from Cisco that provides an encrypted tunnel to distribute preshared keys known as "Protected Access Credential" (PAC) keys. PAC keys may be continuously refreshed to prevent dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST is defined in Cisco's Cisco Compatible Extensions (see CCX).

EAP-SIM (GSM Cellphones)
For GSM phones that switch between cellular and Wi-Fi networks, depending on which is in range. The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) smart card in the GSM phone (see GSM) contains the secret key used for challenge/response authentication and deriving session keys for encryption.
References in classic literature ?
The leaping carnivora and the plunging horses, prevented any concerted action by the Abyssinians--it was every man for himself--and in the melee, the defenseless woman was either forgotten or ignored by her black captors.
There he stood hurling insults at Numa until the beast was again goaded into leaping upward at him, and as Numa rose the noose dropped quickly over his head and about his neck.
Numa gave a nervous start and attempted to break away; but Tarzan held him and, leaping to his feet, ran forward, dragging Numa after him.
Green warriors were leaping to the backs of their restive, squealing thoats.
Instead of remaining to battle with the red man, Hortan Gur promised him his attention after he had disposed of the presumptuous citizens of the walled city, and, leaping astride his thoat, galloped off to meet the rapidly advancing bowmen.
But, the succeeding fraction of a moment, so that Jerry, leaping, missed even the shadow of it, the mainsail, with a second crash of blocks on traveller, had swung across and filled on the other tack.
Spitz gained his feet almost as though he had not been overthrown, slashing Buck down the shoulder and leaping clear.
"Because he came first, running for his life, leaping ere the Little People were aware, and was in the river when they gathered to kill.
Mowgli looked down with a smile, and imitated perfectly the sharp chitter-chatter of Chikai, the leaping rat of the Dekkan, meaning the dholes to understand that he considered them no better than Chikai.
Leaping for the altitude control Gahan pulled it wide.