learning disabilities


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Related to learning disabilities: dyslexia

learning disabilities,

in education, any of various disorders involved in understanding or using spoken or written language, including difficulties in listening, thinking, talking, readingreading,
process of mentally interpreting written symbols. Facility in reading is an essential factor in educational progress, and instruction in this basic skill is a primary purpose of elementary education.
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, writing, spelling, or arithmeticarithmetic,
branch of mathematics commonly considered a separate branch but in actuality a part of algebra. Conventionally the term has been most widely applied to simple teaching of the skills of dealing with numbers for practical purposes, e.g.
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. They may affect people of average or above-average intelligence. Learning disabilities include conditions referred to as perceptual handicaps, minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), dyslexiadyslexia
, in psychology, a developmental disability in reading or spelling, generally becoming evident in early schooling. To a dyslexic, letters and words may appear reversed, e.g., d seen as b or was seen as saw.
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, developmental aphasia, and attentional deficit disorder (ADD); they do not include learning problems due to physical handicaps (e.g., impaired sight or hearing, or orthopedic disabilities), mental retardationmental retardation,
below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.
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, emotional disturbance, or cultural or environmental disadvantage. Techniques for remediation are highly individualized, including the simultaneous use of several senses (sight, hearing, touch), slow-paced instruction, and repetitive exercises to help make perceptual distinctions. Students are also assisted in compensating for their disabilities; for example, one with a writing disability may use a tape recorder for taking notes or answering essay questions. Behavior often associated with learning disabilities includes hyperactivity (hyperkinesis), short attention span, and impulsiveness. School programs for learning-disabled students range from a modified or supplemental program in regular classes to placement in a special school, depending upon the severity of the disability. The field of learning disabilities is considered to have emerged as a separate discipline in 1947 with the publication of the book Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child by neuropsychiatrist Alfred A. Strauss and Laura E. Lehtinen. The need to help students with these disabilities was first recognized on the federal level in 1958, when Congress appropriated $1 million to train teachers for the mentally retarded. Famous people considered to have had a learning disability include Winston Churchill, Thomas Edison, and Nelson Rockefeller.
References in periodicals archive ?
In a 2007 study by the Learning Disabilities Association of Canada, Putting a Face on Learning Disabilities (PACFOLD) ("2007 Study"), it was found that 14.
And offenders with learning disabilities were not receiving the support required to reduce their risk of harm to others or likelihood of reoffending, they added.
The study found that kids are frequently affected by more than one learning disability and that specific learning disabilities co-occur more often than expected.
The head of DYS, Amani Jurdi, called for an overall cultural change in how schools approach students with learning disabilities.
A 10-point checklist for getting the LDF award was developed by people with learning disabilities, carers and workers in Kirklees.
All of this leads to what Allan sees as a theory and ethics of research that "shifts our attention within learning disabilities away from fault, blame, and lack and towards .
The biggest problem is that mothers and schoolteachers know very little about learning disabilities.
Historically, legislation tended to focus on the risks to children and even questioned the morality of people with learning disabilities becoming parents.
Councils and primary care trusts must get to grips with the needs of those people with learning disabilities and their families and carers.
Salend (1998) suggested that these expectations become more stringent for middle school students who have learning disabilities than for those who do not.
Average scores on posttests and state high-stakes achievement tests show that students with learning disabilities outperformed their peers in the comparison group by 42.

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