learning disabilities

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learning disabilities,

in education, any of various disorders involved in understanding or using spoken or written language, including difficulties in listening, thinking, talking, readingreading,
process of mentally interpreting written symbols. Facility in reading is an essential factor in educational progress, and instruction in this basic skill is a primary purpose of elementary education.
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, writing, spelling, or arithmeticarithmetic,
branch of mathematics commonly considered a separate branch but in actuality a part of algebra. Conventionally the term has been most widely applied to simple teaching of the skills of dealing with numbers for practical purposes, e.g.
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. They may affect people of average or above-average intelligence. Learning disabilities include conditions referred to as perceptual handicaps, minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), dyslexiadyslexia
, in psychology, a developmental disability in reading or spelling, generally becoming evident in early schooling. To a dyslexic, letters and words may appear reversed, e.g., d seen as b or was seen as saw.
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, developmental aphasia, and attentional deficit disorder (ADD); they do not include learning problems due to physical handicaps (e.g., impaired sight or hearing, or orthopedic disabilities), mental retardationmental retardation,
below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.
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, emotional disturbance, or cultural or environmental disadvantage. Techniques for remediation are highly individualized, including the simultaneous use of several senses (sight, hearing, touch), slow-paced instruction, and repetitive exercises to help make perceptual distinctions. Students are also assisted in compensating for their disabilities; for example, one with a writing disability may use a tape recorder for taking notes or answering essay questions. Behavior often associated with learning disabilities includes hyperactivity (hyperkinesis), short attention span, and impulsiveness. School programs for learning-disabled students range from a modified or supplemental program in regular classes to placement in a special school, depending upon the severity of the disability. The field of learning disabilities is considered to have emerged as a separate discipline in 1947 with the publication of the book Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child by neuropsychiatrist Alfred A. Strauss and Laura E. Lehtinen. The need to help students with these disabilities was first recognized on the federal level in 1958, when Congress appropriated $1 million to train teachers for the mentally retarded. Famous people considered to have had a learning disability include Winston Churchill, Thomas Edison, and Nelson Rockefeller.
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References in periodicals archive ?
RCN members working in learning disability services tell me how proud and privileged they are to work in the learning disability nursing field.
Learning Disability Week is an excellent opportunity for us to have really important conversations, and to ensure we all understand what it means to have a learning disability.
"At the moment when people with a learning disability and/or autism reach a crisis point, they end up being admitted to inpatient units, which are completely unsuitable environments for them to be in for long periods.
Those on the programme learn to meet the holistic needs of people with a learning disability, promoting empowerment, inclusion, independence, dignity and respect to ensure they are at the centre of all decision making.
Dan Scorer, head of policy at learning disability charity Mencap, said: "These figures show an unacceptable inequality in cancer screening uptake for people with a learning disability, which adds to an already worrying picture about the health of this group of people.
Friarage Learning Disability Week Awareness Stand - Friarage Hub, noon to 2pm today.
A report from Personnel Today - the UK's leading HR website - in 2007 revealed that 60% of HR professionals said people with a learning disability are employed because of their contribution to the workplace and are being employed in higher positions than people realise.
| For the learning disability logo to be recognised and used across the UK | For learning disability awareness training to be mandatory for all NHS staff | To see an increase in the uptake of "quality" learning disability annual health checks and for everyone to have a Learning Disability Health Passport (Traffic Light Assessment) | To see learning disability liaison nurses and learning disability champions in every hospital across the UK | Toseethe implementation of a flagging system for learning disabled adults across every health board and the creation of a common system and standard as currently implemented in ABMU | To see an end to the "scandal" of 1,200 preventable deaths of people with a learning disability in hospital every year What has the foundation accomplished so far?
But accessing a sight test in special school, or through a dedicated learning disability scheme, continues to be a postcode lottery.
Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, a provider of mental health and disability services, has signed up to an initiative to develop the skills and experiences of people with a learning disability through paid work.
This will mean that people with a learning disability feel more valued and included and understand why their vote counts.

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