Thus, we find Palestrina and others notating their first-tone Magnificats in chiavette, since the topmost notes, often reaching g" in the cantus, c" in the altus, a' in the tenor, and d' in the bassus, would each have been above a single ledger line in normal clefs.
Since the highest note of the cantus is f", the cantus part can be accommodated with the [C.sub.1] clef, the f" appearing on the single ledger line above the staff.
Palestrina's use of the [F.sub.3] clef seems only for the purpose of avoiding a single ledger line for the topmost c'; it also keeps the lowest note, A, on the staff itself, but Palestrina could certainly have used an [F.sub.4] clef.
The authors have presented G Position with the hands two-octaves apart, sequencing the introduction of ledger lines
and the more traditional, one-octave apart G Position, for later in Level 2.
The writing in Book 4 features more sophistication, an expanded harmonic palette, and as expected for this level, more challenging note reading with clef changes, accidentals, tied notes, ledger lines
. Technical challenges include one hand arpeggios, harmonic octaves and more frequent hand position shifts.
The score is clean and well laid out with helpful fingering suggestions for the more difficult passages, but occasionally too many ledger lines
(five lines above the staff in Linn's "Nocturne d'Esprit") distract from fluent reading.
Other concepts, including time signatures, tempo markings, ledger lines
It ranges from two ledger lines
below to three ledger lines
above grand staff.