# error

(redirected from legal error)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.
Related to legal error: writ of error, Harmless error

## error,

in law: see appealappeal,
in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court.
.

## Error

in automatic control systems, the difference between the set point and the actual value of the quantity being controlled in a control process. At any given moment, the error can be regarded as the sum of the static error—the error under steady-state conditions—and the dynamic error—the error in a transient response. In the statistical analysis of automatic control systems, the distinction between steady-state and transient errors loses its meaning, and the quality of performance of such a system is evaluated by criteria associated with the probability characteristics of the error. An example of such a criterion is the minimum mean-square error.

## Error

When a number a is taken as the approximate value of a quantity whose exact value is x, the error of a is the difference xa, which is also called the absolute error. The ratio of xa to a is called the relative error. An error is usually characterized by indicating its maximum possible value. The maximum possible value of the absolute error is the number Δ (a) such that ǀxaǀ ≤ Δ(a). The maximum possible value of the relative error is the number δ(a) such that

The maximum values of relative errors are often expressed as percentages. The numbers Δ(a) and δ(a) are taken as small as possible.

If a is the approximate value of x with a maximum absolute error of Δ(a), this fact can be written x = a ± Δ(a). The analogous expression for the relative error is x = a(1 ± δ(a)).

The maximum values of the absolute and relative errors indicate the maximum possible divergence between x and a. In addition to these values, an error is often characterized by the nature of its origin and by the frequency of occurrence of different values of xa. The methods of probability theory are used in this approach to errors.

The error of the result in the numerical solution of a problem is caused by inaccuracies intrinsic to the formulation of the problem and to the means used to solve it. Errors stemming from the inaccuracy of a mathematical description of an actual process—for example, from an inaccurate statement of the original data—are said to be inherent errors. Errors of method arise because of the inaccuracy of the method used in solving the problem. Computational errors are the result of inaccuracies in computations.

When computations are performed, initial errors pass in succession from operation to operation, accumulating and giving rise to new errors. The appearance and propagation of errors in computational work are studied by numerical analysis.

### REFERENCES

Berezin, I. S., and N. P. Zhidkov. Metody vychislenii, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1966.
Bakhvalov, N. S. Chislennye metody. Moscow, 1973.

G. D. KIM

## error

[′er·ər]
(computer science)
An incorrect result arising from approximations used in numerical methods, rather than from a human mistake or computer malfunction.
(science and technology)
Any discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured quantity and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value of that quantity.

## Error

Breeches Bible, the
the Geneva Bible, so dubbed because it stated that Adam and Eve made themselves breeches. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 101]
Cortez
alluded to in a poem by Keats, mistaken for Balboa, as discoverer of Pacific Ocean. [Br. Poetry: “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”]
Wicked Bible, the
misprinted a commandment as “Thou shalt commit adultery.” [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 102]
seacoast of Bohemia
Shakespearean setting in a land with no seacoast. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare The Winter’s Tale, III,iii]

## error

(1)
A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.

## error

(programming)
A mental mistake made by a programmer that may result in a program fault.

## error

(3)
(verb) What a program does when it stops as result of a programming error.
References in periodicals archive ?
The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), whose USD285m settlement with Citigroup Inc (NYSE: C) related to a mortgage bond deal was recently denied by a judge, has said that the judge, Jed Rakoff, had committed a 'legal error.'
an empirical legal error if the Master of the Rolls had mistakenly
regulated parties fear inaccurate prosecution and legal error. Moreover,
But he or she must do so honestly and without attempting to lead the court into factual or legal error. Some interpretations of the old version put the rule in perspective.
February 4, 2010 (KHARTOUM) -- The African Union (AU) today issued a statement criticizing the ruling of the appeal chamber at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in which it decided that the Pre-Trial chamber committed a legal error in excluding the genocide charges from the arrest warrant against Sudanese president Omer Hassan Al-Bashir.
In other words, he equated the legal error and the crime itself, and thus punished those who were erroneous by exonerating the criminals.
(16) Citing the parties' arbitration agreement that authorized judicial review for legal error, the court held that the failure to treat the Water Act as an environmental law constituted legal error that justified vacating the award.
The Legal Affairs Department, on its part, clarified that it had corrected, what it termed, a 'legal error' the Sharjah Education Zone had made by imposing a fine of Dh20,000 on the school.
As courts have defined and made more rigorous the available means of vacating an arbitration award on the basis of legal error by the Panel, parties have increasingly attempted to adopt specific terms in their arbitration clauses that attempt to protect themselves from unpredictable or incorrect legal determinations by Panels.
In reviewing the board's decisions, Mississippi courts must follow specific parameters -- they can only overturn based on a finding of legal error or ''arbitrary and capricious'' judgment.
On further appeal, SDK argued to the ECJ that the CFI had committed legal error when it ruled that the Commission (1) could rely upon worldwide turnover to calculate the basic fine and the deterrence multiplier and, (2) did not have to take into account the fact that criminal proceedings in the United States, Canada and Japan had already imposed fines on it for the same behavior.
Cronk, writing for the three judges states: "In all these circumstances, in my view, the Review Board's conclusion that its disposition was the "least onerous and least restrictive" disposition available for this accused, is tainted by legal error."

Site: Follow: Share:
Open / Close