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Livorno (lē vôrˈnô), Brit. Leghorn, city (1991 pop. 167,512), capital of Livorno prov., Tuscany, central Italy, on the Ligurian Sea and on the Aurelian Way. It is a busy commercial, industrial, and tourist center and is one of the most important ports of Italy. Manufactures include refined petroleum, iron, steel, aluminum, copper, metal minerals, chemicals, ships, vehicles, machinery, and electrical equipment. The city has major shipyards and a fishing industry. A fortified castle in the Middle Ages, Livorno was developed (16th cent.) into a flourishing city by the Medici. In 1590, Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany, made it a free port and opened it to all religious and political refugees. The city was badly damaged in World War II. Points of interest include the cathedral (16th cent., restored after 1945) and the remains of the 17th-century city wall. The Italian naval academy is there.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Livorno), a city and port in the region of Tuscany, in Italy, located on the Ligurian Sea. Administrative center of the province of Leghorn. Population, 175,300 (1971).

Leghorn is the outlet on the sea for the whole region. The port handles 9.5 million tons of freight (1971). Three-quarters of the incoming cargo is petroleum, and the main outgoing cargoes are petroleum products and building materials. Among the city’s industries are shipbuilding, petroleum refining, machine building, the manufacture of electrical equipment, and the production of plastic articles and glass, as well as chemicals and food industry. In the surrounding area there is ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. The city is the site of a naval academy. In the Middle Ages Leghorn was a fortress. The city arose in the 15th century. In the second half of the 16th century it became a very important international port on the Mediterranean Sea. It was an important center of the Revolution of 1848–49 in Italy. In the second half of the 19th century Leghorn became a major center of the workers’ and democratic movement. In 1921 the Italian Communist Party was founded in Leghorn.



a breed of chickens noted for their production of eggs. It was developed in the 19th century in the USA by crossing white Italian chickens with minorcas, Spanish chickens, game fowl, and other breeds. The name of the breed is derived from the Italian port of Livorno (English, Leghorn), from which local chickens were exported.

Leghorns are divided into several varieties according to color of plumage (white, brown, light yellow, black, and blue), body type, and comb shape. The most widely distributed are the white leghorns. They are readily acclimatized, hardy, and early maturing. Roosters weigh 2.3–2.7 kg; hens, 1.8–2.0 kg. Egg productivity is 220–270 eggs per year, with the best layers producing more than 300. Eggs weigh 55–62 g, and the shell is white. Owing to its high productive qualities the breed has spread to almost all countries. It was first imported into the USSR in 1925, where it was widely used for crossbreeding with local chickens.

The hybrids served as the basis for the development of the Russian white breed. Since 1963 highly productive combined lines of leghorns have been imported into the USSR from many countries. Work with lines of leghorns is aimed at improving pedigree and productive properties, reinforcing the compatibility of different lines, and mass reproduction of a line of birds for production of hybrids. Leghorns are raised all over the USSR.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a type of Italian wheat straw that is woven into hats


1. the English name for Livorno
2. a breed of domestic fowl laying white eggs
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005