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see LivornoLivorno
, Brit. Leghorn, city (1991 pop. 167,512), capital of Livorno prov., Tuscany, central Italy, on the Ligurian Sea and on the Aurelian Way. It is a busy commercial, industrial, and tourist center and is one of the most important ports of Italy.
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, Italy.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Livorno), a city and port in the region of Tuscany, in Italy, located on the Ligurian Sea. Administrative center of the province of Leghorn. Population, 175,300 (1971).

Leghorn is the outlet on the sea for the whole region. The port handles 9.5 million tons of freight (1971). Three-quarters of the incoming cargo is petroleum, and the main outgoing cargoes are petroleum products and building materials. Among the city’s industries are shipbuilding, petroleum refining, machine building, the manufacture of electrical equipment, and the production of plastic articles and glass, as well as chemicals and food industry. In the surrounding area there is ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. The city is the site of a naval academy. In the Middle Ages Leghorn was a fortress. The city arose in the 15th century. In the second half of the 16th century it became a very important international port on the Mediterranean Sea. It was an important center of the Revolution of 1848–49 in Italy. In the second half of the 19th century Leghorn became a major center of the workers’ and democratic movement. In 1921 the Italian Communist Party was founded in Leghorn.



a breed of chickens noted for their production of eggs. It was developed in the 19th century in the USA by crossing white Italian chickens with minorcas, Spanish chickens, game fowl, and other breeds. The name of the breed is derived from the Italian port of Livorno (English, Leghorn), from which local chickens were exported.

Leghorns are divided into several varieties according to color of plumage (white, brown, light yellow, black, and blue), body type, and comb shape. The most widely distributed are the white leghorns. They are readily acclimatized, hardy, and early maturing. Roosters weigh 2.3–2.7 kg; hens, 1.8–2.0 kg. Egg productivity is 220–270 eggs per year, with the best layers producing more than 300. Eggs weigh 55–62 g, and the shell is white. Owing to its high productive qualities the breed has spread to almost all countries. It was first imported into the USSR in 1925, where it was widely used for crossbreeding with local chickens.

The hybrids served as the basis for the development of the Russian white breed. Since 1963 highly productive combined lines of leghorns have been imported into the USSR from many countries. Work with lines of leghorns is aimed at improving pedigree and productive properties, reinforcing the compatibility of different lines, and mass reproduction of a line of birds for production of hybrids. Leghorns are raised all over the USSR.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a type of Italian wheat straw that is woven into hats


1. the English name for Livorno
2. a breed of domestic fowl laying white eggs
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Leghorns are prolific layers and have white feathers covering the whole body.
Feeding time Daniel Harkin and Holly Colquhoun tend to the Leghorns
This study was conducted with the aim of comparing the quality and sensory attributes of eggs from different chicken genotypes in Pakistan (Fayoumi, White Leghorn, Aseel, Rhode Island Red, Naked Neck, and White Plymouth Rock).
There were three types of thymic corpuscles in the ostrich thymus, which were similar in structure to those observed in broiler chickens, ducks, and white leghorns (Wei et al.; Yu et al.; Yuan et al.).
During the years I lived in California, I lost Cochins, Rhode Island Reds, and even Mediterranean breeds (normally thought of as heat-tolerant) during Central Valley heat waves, and I've seen commercial flocks of White Leghorns have sizable mortality losses during the same periods.
The Eugene Challengers swept a nonleague doubleheader against the Tigard Leghorns on Sunday, winning 10-0 and 10-7 at Swede Johnson Stadium.
"Thirty years ago leghorns were quite common but now commer-ciallthey are almost extinct," said Peter, who played professional football as a goalkeeper with Middlesbrough from 1949-53.
White Hollands are derived from white leghorns, Rhode Island Reds, New Hampshires, and Lamonas.
During the early 1940s, our birds were white Leghorns because of that breed's high white egg production.
We've plenty of bantams, lots of ducks, 14 geese, mostly Chinese, and some new golden bantams called Buff Leghorns. We have a real menagerie of animals at home.
The Leghorns have been genetically engineered to lay a specific number of eggs daily, but many die of suffocation and disease as a result of their cramped quarters.
Even so, it proved possible in the 1970s to breed white leghorns free of endogenous ALV genomes; such chickens are now being introduced by Merck as preferred substrates for vaccine production.