legislature

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legislature,

representative assembly empowered to enact statute law. Generally the representatives who compose a legislature are constitutionally elected by a broad spectrum of the population.

Types of Legislatures

Two common types of legislature are those in which the executive and the legislative branches are clearly separated, as in the U.S. Congress, and those in which members of the executive branch are chosen from the legislative membership, as in the British Parliament. Respectively termed presidential and parliamentary systems, there are innumerable variations of the two forms. It should be noted that while popular assemblies of citizens, as in direct democracydemocracy
[Gr.,=rule of the people], term originating in ancient Greece to designate a government where the people share in directing the activities of the state, as distinct from governments controlled by a single class, select group, or autocrat.
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, are often called legislatures, the term should properly be applied only to those assemblies that perform a representative function.

In its early history, the English ParliamentParliament,
legislative assembly of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Over the centuries it has become more than a legislative body; it is the sovereign power of Great Britain, whereas the monarch remains sovereign in name only.
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, like the States-GeneralStates-General
or Estates-General,
diet or national assembly in which the chief estates (see estate) of a nation—usually clergy, nobles, and towns (or commons)—were represented as separate bodies.
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 of France and the dietdiet,
parliamentary bodies in Japan, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, the Scandinavian nations, and Germany have been called diets. In German history, the diet originated as a meeting of landholders and burghers, convoked by the ruler to discuss financial problems.
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 of the Holy Roman Empire consisted of representatives chosen according to classes or estates (see estateestate.
1 In property law, see property; tenure. 2 In constitutional law, an estate denotes an organized class of society with a separate voice in government. Representation by estate arose in Europe in the 13th cent.
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, in constitutional law). Out of the estates arose the typical bicameral system, in which an upper house represented the nobility and clergy and a lower house represented the bourgeoisie. Although the upper house assemblies of many countries are still nonelective or hereditary, they are generally much weaker than the popularly elected lower house and carry out only minor functions. Those states with unicameral legislatures include Finland and Israel.

The Congress of the United StatesCongress of the United States,
the legislative branch of the federal government, instituted (1789) by Article 1 of the Constitution of the United States, which prescribes its membership and defines its powers.
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 is bicameral, but rather than being rooted in societal class differences, it is based upon principles of federalism. The founders of the American republic, in order to assure acceptance of the Constitution, gave each state equal representationrepresentation,
in government, the term used to designate the means by which a whole population may participate in governing through the device of having a much smaller number of people act on their behalf.
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 in the Senate, as a gesture to the smaller states, and made membership in the House of Representatives dependent upon population size, thereby favoring the larger states. Most of the American state legislatures are also bicameral.

History

While rules of law have always been a concern for society, the use of legislatures for their establishment is a relatively modern phenomenon. In earlier times, human laws were considered part of the universal natural law, discoverable through the use of reason rather than made by the declaration of the people. With the growth of belief in positive law, the increasing need in emerging modern society for adaptable law, and the decline of monarchial power, however, legislatures with law-making powers came about. One of the oldest legislatures (with the possible exception of Iceland's AlthingAlthing
[Icel.,=general diet], parliament of Iceland. This assembly, the oldest in Europe, was convened at Thingvellir, SW Iceland, in 930. It was dissolved in 1800, was revived as an advisory body to the Danish monarchy in 1845, and in 1874, when Iceland was granted a
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 and the Isle of Man's Tynwald) is the English ParliamentParliament,
legislative assembly of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Over the centuries it has become more than a legislative body; it is the sovereign power of Great Britain, whereas the monarch remains sovereign in name only.
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, which, although originally nonelective and advisory to the king, has evolved over the centuries to the point where its lower house is now elected through universal suffrage and possesses the sovereign power of the state.

Some other modern national legislatures are the U.S. CongressCongress of the United States,
the legislative branch of the federal government, instituted (1789) by Article 1 of the Constitution of the United States, which prescribes its membership and defines its powers.
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, the CortesCortes
, representative assembly in Spain. The institution originated (12th–13th cent.) in various Spanish regions with the Christian reconquest; until the 19th cent.
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 (Spain), the Knesset (Israel), the Dáil ÉireannDáil Éireann
[Irish,=diet of Ireland], the popular representative body of the Oireachtas, or National Parliament, of the Republic of Ireland. The second, smaller chamber, the Saenad Éireann, or Senate, has very limited powers, and the executive, as
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 (Ireland), the BundestagBundestag
, lower house of the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is a popularly elected body that elects the chancellor, passes all legislation (subject to executive veto on budget matters), and ratifies the most important treaties.
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 (Germany), the FolketingFolketing
, national parliament of Denmark. Formerly the lower house of the bicameral Rigsdag, it became the sole parliamentary body in 1953. It shares legislative power with the monarch, who can dissolve the body but cannot assume major international obligations without its
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 (Denmark), the RiksdagRiksdag
, national parliament of Sweden, formed in 1866. Originally a two-chamber legislature, it became a single chamber body in 1971. Representation in the chamber is proportional. Members are elected by universal suffrage for a term of three years.
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 (Sweden), the StortingStorting
, national parliament of Norway, dating from 1814. Its members are elected by direct universal suffrage for a four-year term, and representation is proportional.
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 (Norway), and the Congress of People's Deputies (Russia). The term parliament is often applied to national legislatures without regard to the official designation.

Bibliography

See W. I. Jennings, Parliament (2d ed. 1957, repr. 1969); American Assembly, State Legislatures in American Politics (1966); G. S. Blair, American Legislatures: Structure and Process (1967); W. H. Agor, ed., Latin American Legislatures—Their Role and Influence (1971); J. Smith and L. D. Musolf, ed., Legislatures in Development: Dynamics of Change in New and Old States (1979); N. J. Ornstein, ed., Role of the Legislature in Western Democracies (1981); D. Judge, The Politics of Parliamentary Reform (1984).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Legislature

 

(1) In Russian a word (legislatura) used to refer to the term of office of a representative body (parliament, municipal council) or elected official (president, vice-president, governor, or mayor).

(2) In federal states a term sometimes used to refer to the legislative bodies of the members of a federation (for example, the legislature of certain states in India).

(3) In legal and political literature, a synonym for parliament. In English sources, the legislative bodies of countries of the British Commonwealth are called parliaments; for the parliaments of other countries the term “legislature” is used.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

legislature

a body of persons vested with power to make, amend, and repeal laws
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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House of Representatives and Senate, identified as "the legislative branch" in this measure, has risen slightly among all Americans in the past year, it nonetheless remains well below the historical average of 50% dating back to 1972.
Despite the key role the fusion of legislative and executive branches plays in our system of government, there is a growing risk for the public service (which provides ministers with nonpartisan policy advice and implements government decisions) and the legislative branch (which debates and scrutinizes those decisions) to operate in silos and without a strong grasp of how the two branches relate to and interact with one another.
Depending on the circumstances and the jurisprudence in a given state, oversight of certain legislative actions might have to be performed by the legislative branch, and the legislative branch alone.
It then presents individual state profiles, about ten pages each, that are uniformly structured to allow comparison of state history, the political environment, elections and voting behavior, the legislative branch, the executive branch, the judicial branch, intergovernmental relations, state-tribal relations (where applicable), and long-term issues and policy trends.
In the light of this development, Elizabeth Alexander, a spokesperson for the vice president-elect, said: "Vice President-elect Biden had no intention of continuing the practice started by Vice President Cheney of regularly attending internal legislative branch meetings - he firmly believes in restoring the Office of the Vice President to its historical role.
But to those of us not asked to make a sacrifice in blood or treasure for this war, those of us whose duty has been limited to getting on with our lives and standing by while our constitutional rights drain away and our legislative branch continues its self-degradation, this war reverberates only as an echo of something awful happening some place far away.
I do think House Speaker Dennis Hastert (R-Ill.) made the right move in joining House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) to "defend the legislative branch" over Jefferson's office search, however.
He has long surrounded himself with impeccably loyal aides who both share his worldview of a powerful presidency unchecked by the legislative branch, and who have also installed like-minded allies throughout the government.
CORRECTION: The Democrat leaders in the Congress vowed, if they took control of the legislative branch, immediately to introduce legislation to increase the mandatory federal minimum wage by 40 percent.
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"Term limits in states have done more to limit rather than enhance the effectiveness of the legislative branch," said Karl Kurtz, director of state services at NCSL.

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