The rectum is divided at the level of the levators
. At this level, there is no further mesorectum, and the rectum is largely seen as a muscular tube.
1B), the levator
mandibulae muscles shift so that they originate close to the anterior margin of the eye.
In the summer months, Turner sees an increase in patients with levator
scapula pain, largely due to air conditioning.
Musculoskeletal dysfunction--including tenderness and spasms of the levator
ani and piriformis--has been reported as a treatable cause of chronic pelvic pain.
Of the 212 patients with levator
ani tenderness, 23% had no previous surgeries, 61% had one-to-three surgeries, and 17% had more than three surgeries, compared with 30%, 60%, and 10%, respectively, of those without levator
It is theorized that when the levator
ani muscle loses tone it drops form a horizontal to a semi vertical position, causing a widened or open genital hiatus that predisposes the pelvic viscera to prolapse.
The normal adult upper lid is highest nasal to the pupil and covers 1-1.5 mm below the superior limbus.1,2 The basic etiology of ptosis is weakness of either of two elevators of the upper lid that include levator
palpebrae superioris and muller muscle.
muscle strength was 11 mm for both eyes.
Under sterile conditions 2.5 units were injected at two sites per side.The injection was given at the labial component of the levator
labii superioris alequae nasii, at the bulge of the uppermost part of the nasolabial fold.12
Long-term correction of ptosis requires surgical manipulation of the levator
palpebrae superioris muscle and/or Muller's muscle.
Piriformis and levator
ani tenderness were positively associated with the number of painful abdominal-pelvic locations reported, pain associated with bowel movements, and higher Beck Depression Inventory and McGill Pain Questionnaire scores.