Mulla et al., "Usefulness of cardiac transplantation in children with visceral heterotaxy (asplenic and polysplenic syndromes and single right-sided spleen with levocardia
) and comparison of results with cardiac transplantation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy," The American Journal of Cardiology, vol.
Situs inversus can occur with the heart positioned on either the right side of the chest, i.e., situs inversus with dextrocardia, or with the heart located in the left chest - situs inversus with levocardia
. The normal arrangement of the abdominal and thoracic organs is called situs solitus.
Situs inversus can be classified further into situs inversus with dextrocardia or situs inversus with levocardia
. In 1600, the first known case of situs inversus in humans was reported by Fabricius.
Situs inversus can be associated with right sided heart (dextrocardia) which is situs inversus totalis or can be associated with left sided heart (levocardia
) which is situs inversus incompletes [1,8].
There is levocardia
but with situs anomaly of the subphrenic organs including central, left-dominant liver, and right-sided stomach and spleen (with polysplenia).
Partial situs inversus: duodenal obstruction in a neonate with isolated levocardia
. J Pediatr Surg 1992; 27(12): 1584-1586.
An echocardiogram showed an endocardial cushion defect, single atrium, right-sided aorta, pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid regurgitation and situs inversus with levocardia
. The patient's platelet count was 62 x [10.sup.9]/l, and he therefore underwent a bone marrow trephine biopsy taken from the left posterior iliac fossa.
Abdominal situs inversus, also called abdominal heterotaxia or isolated levocardia
, is characterized by inversion of the abdominal viscera but with a normally located heart in the left hemithorax.