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the totality of words; the vocabulary of a language.

The lexicon of a language or dialect is the subject of lexicology and semantics, and the lexicon of writers or individual works is the subject of stylistics and poetics. The lexicon of any language forms a complex system; its words are linked with one another both in sound form (homonyms and paronyms) and meaning (synonyms and antonyms), and the individual groups of words form what is called thematic groups (for example, the names for means of transportation; kinship terms). A lexicon is heterogeneous from the standpoint of stylistics, since it contains not only “neutral” words (for example, Russian stol, “table”; govorit’, “to speak”; khoroshii, “good”; on, “he”; tri, “three”) but also words that are restricted in usage in different ways by the stylistics of the language itself (for example, Russian ochi, “eyes”; burkaly, “eyes”; vodruzit’,) “to hoist,” “erect”; okoem, “horizon”; vkalyvat’, “to stick (into),” “to work hard”; dialectal gashnik, “girdle string”; slang pervoklashka, “first-grader”; bukhoi, “sozzled”). Phraseology is directly linked to the lexicon of a language, since many words form stable combinations with the specific meaning of a whole as opposed to that of its parts—for example, negashenaia izvest’, “quicklime” (literally “unextinguished lime”); dat’ po rukam, “to rap on the knuckles” (literally “to give on the hands”); and sobaku s”est’, “to know inside out” (literally “to eat a dog”). The lexicons of the most developed languages contain hundreds of thousands of words (including terminological systems).

From a historical standpoint, a lexicon usually includes words of different origins; this reflects the direct and mediated contacts of a given people with other peoples. In recent centuries, and particularly from the late 19th century, the professional lexicon —the terminology of a special discipline—has grown at a rapid pace. The international lexicon and the terminology of its Greek and Latin morphemes are widely represented in the Indo-European languages (for example, in Russian atom, “atom”; metod, “method”; kommunizm, “communism”; biologiia, “biology”; lingvistika, “linguistics”; konstitutsiia, “constitution”; fotosintez, “photosynthesis”; tsiklotron, “cyclotron”; kosmo-drom, “spaceport”; fonema, “phoneme”; and similar words). The lexicon includes both obsolete words—historical words (Russian zabralo, “visor” and nep, “new economic policy”) and archaisms (for example, Russian daby, “in order”; vyia, “neck”; breg, “shore”; mladoi, “young”; iazyk, “language,” in the meaning of “people”)—and neologisms (for example, Russian kosmovidenie, “space television”; dizainer, “designer”; programmist, “programmer”).


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Kalinin, A. V. Leksika russkogo iazyka, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1971.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Despite these findings, lexical transfer errors deserve attention for two reasons: first, lexical selection consists mainly of content words, and so errors of this type are potentially very disruptive as they may impede communication, in particular placing a greater burden on the reader of written production (Hemchua & Schmitt, 2006).
What is the relationship between word context and human ratings of lexical proficiency?
There are lexemes registered in the entries because of lexical inferences based on encyclopedic information.
Based on the research reviewed in previous chapters, Wood summarizes the importance of formulaic language and its contribution to a range of fields and subfields in language studies, such as Meaning-Text Theory, Usage-based models, lexical priming, and lexical semantics.
In sum, the present experiment examined whether the substantial expertise at disentangling letter identity and letter position that is required in competitive Scrabble produces a more accurate encoding of letter position during lexical access (i.
The remaining nine contributions do indeed concern lexical semantics.
Among all supra segmental features of English, its lexical stress seems to be the most difficult one and, as a matter of fact, English is heavily stress-timed (Abercrombie, 1967; Pike, 1966; Baker and Goldstein, 1990; O'Connor, 1980).
Dessa forma, para completar o entendimento sobre o acesso lexical, modelos com foco na producao lexical tambem foram explorados neste artigo.
Moreover, it is assumed here that lexical creativity is optimally described in relation to a particular subject or context (in a broader sense).
The model of Construction Morphology is shown to allow for the graceful integration of findings concerning lexical knowledge in various subdomains of Linguistics such as language acquisition, change, and processing.