liability

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Related to liable: Vicariously liable

liability,

in law, an obligation of one party to another, usually to compensate financially. It is a fundamental aspect of torttort,
in law, the violation of some duty clearly set by law, not by a specific agreement between two parties, as in breach of contract. When such a duty is breached, the injured party has the right to institute suit for compensatory damages.
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 law, although liability may also arise from duties entered into by special agreement, as in a contractcontract,
in law, a promise, enforceable by law, to perform or to refrain from performing some specified act. In a general sense, all civil obligations fall under tort or contract law.
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 or in the carrying out of a fiduciaryfiduciary
, in law, a person who is obliged to discharge faithfully a responsibility of trust toward another. Among the common fiduciary relationships are guardian to ward, parent to child, lawyer to client, corporate director to corporation, trustee to trust, and business
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 duty. Liability is not always the result of an intentionally damaging act or of some proven fault like negligencenegligence,
in law, especially tort law, the breach of an obligation (duty) to act with care, or the failure to act as a reasonable and prudent person would under similar circumstances.
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. The affixing of liability may once have been simply a peace-preserving alternative to the practice of an injured party taking vengeance. Further, the law's emphasis has long been that one who is able to pay (who, in modern terms, has "deep pockets") should pay one who has lost something through an action of the payer, even if that action was blameless.

Vicarious liability is the duty of a principal, e.g., an employer, to pay for losses occasioned by the acts of an agent, e.g., an employee. Strict liability, under which those engaging in certain undertakings (e.g., such "ultrahazardous" practices as the industrial use of high explosives) are held responsible for injury without inquiry into fault, has been increasingly imposed by courts and by statute in the 19th and 20th cent. One response has been the growth of the liability insurance industry, offering such coverage as physicians' malpracticemalpractice,
failure to provide professional services with the skill usually exhibited by responsible and careful members of the profession, resulting in injury, loss, or damage to the party contracting those services.
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 insurance. An area that has been the focus of much litigation, legislation, and debate in recent decades is product liability, under which heavy strict liability costs have been imposed on makers of such varied items as foods, drugs, cosmetics, and automobiles.

References in periodicals archive ?
Under the reintroduced slab number two, a person earning over Rs100,000 per month but less than Rs150,000 is liable to pay a fixed amount of Rs2,500 in addition to the 10% of the amount exceeding Rs100,000 per month from July onwards.
The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) could be held 'administratively liable' for the recent power outages in many parts of Luzon, Senator Gatchalian said Thursday.
They ordered Revilla civilly liable despite his acquittal," the prosecution's motion read.
The main points of concern are (1) whether the legal representative of a company becomes personally liable for a crime committed by that company and (2) whether the company responds to a crime committed by its legal representative.
If convicted with an offence, you shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years; and a fine of not less than five times the sum or value of the gratification which is the subject matter of the offence, where such gratification is capable of being valued or is of a pecuniary nature, or ten thousand Ringgit Malaysia, whichever is the higher.
The Commission on Audit (COA) has held former officials and retrenched employees of the Philippine National Construction Corporation (PNCC) liable to return to the government over P70 million in separation pay found to be in excess of the allowable compensation authorized under the law.
Summary: Suppliers will be liable for the tax in two cases
The embassy pointed out that citizens of India may note that: the passport or travel document issued by the government is invalid for the travel of the holder to Yemen; any Indian national who travels to Yemen in violation of the notification, shall be liable for action under Section 12 of the Passports Act, 1967, and the passport shall be liable for impounding or revocation, as the case may be, under sub-section (3) of Section 10 of the said act.
Furthermore, persons liable to deduct or collect tax at source will be required to register, but the liability to deduct or collect tax will arise only from the date on which the respective sections are brought into force.
It must be considered whether, if the harm caused to patients is the result of incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence by hospital administrators and/or provincial authorities, they should be held personally liable to compensate such patients, or whether the relevant Department of Health (i.e.