libretto

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libretto

(ləbrĕt`ō) [Ital.,=little book], the text of an opera or an oratorio. Although a play usually emphasizes an integrated plot, a libretto is most often a loose plot connecting a series of episodes. Characterization and emotion are suggested by the words of a libretto but are expressed by the music. The first major librettist was Ottavio Rinuccini, an Italian poet of the 16th cent. Outstanding in the 17th cent. was Philippe QuinaultQuinault, Philippe
, 1635–88, French dramatist. His tragedies and comedies are affected and undistinguished, but he found an outlet for his talent in the 14 opera librettos which he wrote for Lully.
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, and in the 18th cent. important librettists were the poet Pietro MetastasioMetastasio, Pietro
, 1698–1782, Italian poet and librettist, whose original name was Antonio Bonaventura Trapassi. A prodigy at poetic improvisation, he became court poet at Vienna in 1729.
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, many of whose 50 libretti were set numerous times by major composers, Ranieri di Calzabigi, and Lorenzo Da PonteDa Ponte, Lorenzo
, 1749–1838, Italian librettist and teacher, b. Ceneda as Emmanuele Conegliano. Born Jewish, he converted to Catholicism at 14, became (1773) a priest, and shortly after ordination moved to Venice.
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. The 19th-century librettists of note included Augustin Eugène ScribeScribe, Augustin Eugène
, 1791–1861, French dramatist and librettist. He began his prolific and highly successful writing career with vaudeville sketches. One of the first playwrights to mirror bourgeois morality and life, he infused 19th-century French opera and
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, W. S. GilbertGilbert, Sir William Schwenck,
1836–1911, English playwright and poet. He won fame as the librettist of numerous popular operettas, written in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan.
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, and the composers Arrigo BoitoBoito, Arrigo
, 1842–1918, Italian composer and librettist. His opera Mefistofele (1868, rev. 1875), influenced by Wagner's music-drama, helped to bring about a new dramatic style in Italian opera.
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 and Richard WagnerWagner, Richard
, 1813–83, German composer, b. Leipzig. Life and Work

Wagner was reared in a theatrical family, had a classical education, and began composing at 17.
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; prominent in the 20th cent. was Hugo von HofmannsthalHofmannsthal, Hugo von
, 1874–1929, Austrian dramatist and poet. His first verses were published when he was 16 years old, and his play The Death of Titian (1892, tr. 1913) when he was 18.
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.

Libretto

 

the verbal text of a work of musical drama, such as an opera or operetta and, in the past, of a cantata or oratorio; a ballet scenario; a brief summary of the content of an opera, operetta, or ballet. The term came from the fact that in the late 17th century, opera librettos were often printed for theatergoers in the form of little booklets.

The libretto is the literary and dramatic basis of an opera. Until the mid-18th century, librettos were composed in a fixed pattern following standard musical and dramatic conventions. Thus, the same successful libretto was often used repeatedly by different composers. Later, the libretto was usually written by a librettist in close collaboration with the composer, and sometimes with his direct participation, ensuring better unity among action, words, and music.

In the 19th century, outstanding composers with literary and dramatic gifts began writing librettos for their operas themselves, including H. Berlioz, R. Wagner, A. Boito, and M. P. Mussorgsky. Such 20th-century composers as S. S. Prokofiev and K. Orff continued the practice.

The main sources of subjects for librettos are folk poetry, legends, fairytales, and professional works of literature. Literary works are usually significantly different in libretto form—for example, the basic concept of Pushkin’s Queen of Spades was revised in P. I. Tchaikovsky’s opera. Only in exceptional cases have dramatic works been used intact in librettos—for example, Dargomyzhskii’s The Stone Guest, based on Pushkin’s drama, and Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande, based on Maeterlinck’s play.

Librettos vary greatly in content, structure, application of a verse or prose text, and presence or absence of subdivisions of the text. The history of the libretto is inseparably linked with that of opera itself in all its generic and national varieties. Every type of opera in musical history has a corresponding type of libretto.

libretto

a text written for and set to music in an opera, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The reason is that libretti often present remarkable variances from production to production.
14) Thus, the source of contention in Libretti is determining what a court should consider as being part of a "plea of guilty.
Although Libretti presents the first occasion in which the Supreme Court has interpreted Rule 11 (f) in the context of a forfeiture provision, several circuit courts previously considered the issue.
Libretti,(74) the Tenth Circuit analyzed Rule 31 (e) in the context of a case where a defendant pled guilty to violating provisions of 21 U.
85) Since the Court in Libretti determined that forfeiture is a part of the sentence, not part of the substantive offense, the Rule 31 (e) special verdict right is not equivalent to a defendant's Sixth Amendment right to a jury determination of guilt.
87) The multicount indictment also alleged that Libretti operated a continuing criminal enterprise (CCE).
After one week of trial, Libretti entered into a plea agreement whereby he pled guilty to the CCE count and agreed to specific forfeiture provisions detailed in three paragraphs of the plea agreement.
Finally, as part of the plea agreement, Libretti acknowledged "that by pleading guilty to Count 6 of the Indictment, he waive [d] various constitutional tights, including the right to a jury trial.
Following the plea agreement, the district court held a hearing during which the judge advised Libretti of his rights, including his right to a jury trial, "clarified the consequences of Libretti's plea," and further questioned Libretti to ensure that his plea was voluntary and factually based.
The only librettist ever to get that kind of billing was Pietro Metastasio, the well-connected court poet whose 27 libretti were set more than 300 times during the 18th century.
And she's as skeptical about the sublime marriage of text and music as all those lowly menials who ground out libretti in the 17th century for operas we no longer remember.
In its next incarnation, I libretti italiani should appear on a CD-ROM with search software.