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(ləbrĕt`ō) [Ital.,=little book], the text of an opera or an oratorio. Although a play usually emphasizes an integrated plot, a libretto is most often a loose plot connecting a series of episodes. Characterization and emotion are suggested by the words of a libretto but are expressed by the music. The first major librettist was Ottavio Rinuccini, an Italian poet of the 16th cent. Outstanding in the 17th cent. was Philippe QuinaultQuinault, Philippe
, 1635–88, French dramatist. His tragedies and comedies are affected and undistinguished, but he found an outlet for his talent in the 14 opera librettos which he wrote for Lully.
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, and in the 18th cent. important librettists were the poet Pietro MetastasioMetastasio, Pietro
, 1698–1782, Italian poet and librettist, whose original name was Antonio Bonaventura Trapassi. A prodigy at poetic improvisation, he became court poet at Vienna in 1729.
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, many of whose 50 libretti were set numerous times by major composers, Ranieri di Calzabigi, and Lorenzo Da PonteDa Ponte, Lorenzo
, 1749–1838, Italian librettist and teacher, b. Ceneda as Emmanuele Conegliano. Born Jewish, he converted to Catholicism at 14, became (1773) a priest, and shortly after ordination moved to Venice.
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. The 19th-century librettists of note included Augustin Eugène ScribeScribe, Augustin Eugène
, 1791–1861, French dramatist and librettist. He began his prolific and highly successful writing career with vaudeville sketches. One of the first playwrights to mirror bourgeois morality and life, he infused 19th-century French opera and
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, W. S. GilbertGilbert, Sir William Schwenck,
1836–1911, English playwright and poet. He won fame as the librettist of numerous popular operettas, written in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan.
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, and the composers Arrigo BoitoBoito, Arrigo
, 1842–1918, Italian composer and librettist. His opera Mefistofele (1868, rev. 1875), influenced by Wagner's music-drama, helped to bring about a new dramatic style in Italian opera.
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 and Richard WagnerWagner, Richard
, 1813–83, German composer, b. Leipzig. Life and Work

Wagner was reared in a theatrical family, had a classical education, and began composing at 17.
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; prominent in the 20th cent. was Hugo von HofmannsthalHofmannsthal, Hugo von
, 1874–1929, Austrian dramatist and poet. His first verses were published when he was 16 years old, and his play The Death of Titian (1892, tr. 1913) when he was 18.
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the verbal text of a work of musical drama, such as an opera or operetta and, in the past, of a cantata or oratorio; a ballet scenario; a brief summary of the content of an opera, operetta, or ballet. The term came from the fact that in the late 17th century, opera librettos were often printed for theatergoers in the form of little booklets.

The libretto is the literary and dramatic basis of an opera. Until the mid-18th century, librettos were composed in a fixed pattern following standard musical and dramatic conventions. Thus, the same successful libretto was often used repeatedly by different composers. Later, the libretto was usually written by a librettist in close collaboration with the composer, and sometimes with his direct participation, ensuring better unity among action, words, and music.

In the 19th century, outstanding composers with literary and dramatic gifts began writing librettos for their operas themselves, including H. Berlioz, R. Wagner, A. Boito, and M. P. Mussorgsky. Such 20th-century composers as S. S. Prokofiev and K. Orff continued the practice.

The main sources of subjects for librettos are folk poetry, legends, fairytales, and professional works of literature. Literary works are usually significantly different in libretto form—for example, the basic concept of Pushkin’s Queen of Spades was revised in P. I. Tchaikovsky’s opera. Only in exceptional cases have dramatic works been used intact in librettos—for example, Dargomyzhskii’s The Stone Guest, based on Pushkin’s drama, and Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande, based on Maeterlinck’s play.

Librettos vary greatly in content, structure, application of a verse or prose text, and presence or absence of subdivisions of the text. The history of the libretto is inseparably linked with that of opera itself in all its generic and national varieties. Every type of opera in musical history has a corresponding type of libretto.


a text written for and set to music in an opera, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Giovanni e Paolo--the extant libretto is dated 10 January 1657, and may have accompanied the initial performance, hence, the probability of the date--the same venue at which Xerse, the first collaboration of composer and librettist, took place in 1655.
In this case it is somewhat unsettling that the author does not clarify to the reader that the edition of the libretto she uses corresponds, in fact, to the Viennese performance on which she focuses--the book shows a reproduction of the cover page of the Venetian libretto, while the quotations are from a modern edition of Metastasio's collected works.
A whole seven of the eight arias of the Prague libretto were identified in the Regensburg libretto, which with the two arias to which we know the music from other Vivaldi scores (,,Gelido in ogni vena" and "In bosco romito") represent a full half of the opera
Strohm does not consider the extent to which composers may have been hampered by the schematicism of the librettos.
Similarly, the conflicts with Puccini (over Leoncavallo's contribution to the libretto for Manon Lescaut and the rights to Henri Murger's La vie de boheme, for instance) are poorly documented.
Brown is clearly on Dent's side in the argument over the libretto, and he does good service to Da Ponte, demonstrating both his literary refinement (the well-known Sannazaro quotation in Don Alfonso's 'Nel mare solca e nell'arena semina' is one of many literary allusions) and his poetic craftsmanship - there are only a couple of mistranslations: 'rubella' is 'thieving', not 'rebellious' (p.
It has previously been thought that Jacques Autreau's draft was extensively revised by Adrien-Joseph Valois d'Orville, but Bartlet shows that the libretto was largely completed before Autreau's terminal illness prevented him from continuing his work.
As Ledbetter himself points out, we have no evidence that either Gilbert or Sullivan corrected the proofs of librettos and vocal scores.
librettoplural librettos or librettiItalian, literally, booklet, diminutive of libro book
In his monograph I drammi per musica di Antonio Salvi: Aspetti della "riforma" del libretto nel primo Settecento (Proscenio, 7 [Bologna: Il Mulino, 1994]), Giuntini explains how in Salvi's later librettos the military imagery (including siege and battle scenes, mutual hostage-taking, and the simple contrast between constancy and cowardice, male and female) prevails over psychological motifs and inner conflicts.
Tian wrote librettos for traditional Chinese opera when he was a teenager.